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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The retailing and wholesaling pay negotiations for 1998, begun on 8 October
    1997, were concluded on 31 October 1997. The Trade Union of Salaried
    Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) had initially demanded a
    3.5% hike in minimum rates while the Austrian Chamber of the Economy
    (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ) offered fixed amounts varying by grade
    and resulting, on average, in a pay rise below inflation (AT9710140N [1]).
    The social partners finally settled for an average 1.7% increase in minimum
    salaries from 1 January 1998 and a maintenance of the absolute difference
    between minimum and actual salaries. Apprenticeship remuneration will be
    raised by 1.6%. Given that inflation is expected to run at 1.4% ,a very
    moderate rise in real incomes was thus achieved. Some 320,000 employees
    (60%-70% are women) - about 10% of the country's workforce - are directly
    affected by the new agreement and another 130,000 indirectly because their
    wage or salary settlements usually reflect the one concluded in commerce. One
    year previously, GPA asked for a 4.5% pay rise and eventually agreed to an
    average 1.95%.


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    A decision made in October 1997 by the Mediation and Arbitration Service
    (OMED) regulates wages and working conditions more favourably throughout
    Greece for workers in enterprises providing security services, an
    increasingly important branch of the services sector.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 27 November 1997, the Finnish Firefighters' Union (Suomen Palomiesliitto,
    SPAL) called a strike which continues at the time of writing (11 December).
    The action arises from disagreements about firefighters' pay system, working
    hours and retirement age. An attempt at conciliation ended without results
    and the national conciliator, Juhani Salonius, came to the conclusion that
    the parties stood so far apart that not even a proposal for a settlement
    could be made.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In December 1997, the Italian State Railways signed an agreement with
    transport workers' trade unions on the management of redundancies. The
    agreement provides for the creation of a fund to deal with redundant staff by
    means of "mobility" procedures, the Wages Guarantee Fund, job-security
    agreements and early retirement. An important aspect of the agreement was the
    mediation by the Government.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    At the end of 1997, the First Chamber of the Dutch Parliament rejected a
    proposal to give employees the legal right to work part time. Employers
    opposed the bill, while the trade unions were divided on the subject.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    EUROCADRES (the Council for European Professional and Managerial Staff)
    represents over 4 million professional and managerial staff in Europe who are
    members of trade unions affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation.
    The organisation hosted a conference on 2-3 December 1997 to showcase what it
    sees as the underpublicised problem of long working hours among Europe's
    managers. Trends in working hours for these workers, who are potentially
    excluded from the coverage of much of the 1993 EU Directive on certain
    aspects of the organisation of working time (93/104/EC [1]), have run counter
    to the general trend towards a reduction of working hours. The conference,
    which was attended by 150 individuals from among EUROCADRES' member
    organisations and other European and national social partner organisations
    and institutions, focused on the findings of a report on /Professional
    employees' working hours in Europe/ produced by Jean-Yves Boulin (University
    of Paris-Dauphine) and Robert Plasman (Free University of Brussels).


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 11 November 1997, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) issued a judgment in
    case of Hellmut Marschall v Land Nordrhine-Westphalia (C-409/95) [1],
    according to which a national law which guarantees priority for women in
    promotions in the public sector in cases where there are male and female
    candidates who are equally qualified for the post in question does not
    conflict with Community law provided that certain conditions are satisfied.


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    HK/Industri- the industrial section of the Union of Commercial and Clerical
    Employees in Denmark (Handels- og Kontorfunktionærernes Forbund, HK) - has
    published a comprehensive proposal on a "European collective industrial
    relations system". The aim is to initiate a debate on how European-wide
    industrial relations issues can be resolved. The union proposes the
    conclusion of transnational agreements, with an industrial tribunal to
    adjudicate on matters of dispute. These proposals were presented at a
    conference in Denmark on 28-29 November and at a press conference in Brussels
    on 8 December.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In late 1997, the Committee on Freedom of Association of the International
    Labour Organisation (ILO) issued a report favourable to the pay claims of
    Spanish civil servants.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications