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  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Swedish employees are entitled to leave of absence for a number of reasons,
    and the Government's plans to introduce yet another one - for starting or
    working in their own businesses - were not met with overwhelming enthusiasm
    when they were made public in spring 1997. The Swedish Employers'
    Confederation (Svenska Arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) and the National Agency
    for Government Employers (Arbetsgivarverket) objected, and the Swedish Trade
    Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, LO) doubted that there was a need
    for an act of the kind proposed.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    There has, in recent years, been an increasing focus on corporate conduct in
    terms of social, ethical and environmental performance. The experience of
    large multinational corporations such as Nike and Shell, which have been
    faced with protest campaigns against their social and environmental policies,
    has galvanised actors in this area. Many organisations are beginning to
    recognise that their profitability in the long term depends as much on on
    their performance in satisfying the aspirations of their "stakeholders" -
    including customers, suppliers, employees, local communities, investors,
    governments, and interest groups - in terms of their social and environmental
    record, as it does on price and quality.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Since the 1980s, intense product market competition among the industrialised
    countries has led to a search for new products and new methods of production.
    At the same time, new technology is changing the ways that labour markets
    work and UK labour institutions have increasingly come into question. The UK
    in particular has experienced a sharp decline in the coverage of collective
    bargaining and of unionisation. Most of these developments have either been
    the consequence of, or the reason for, increasing flexibility. Yet what is
    "flexibility", what does it mean and what is it doing?

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    On 24 November 1997, the general meeting of the peak employers' association
    (Vereinigung der Arbeitgeberverbände in Bayern, VAB) in the federal state
    (Land) of Bavaria decided to merge with the Bavarian peak trade association
    (Landesverband der Bayerischen Industrie, LBI). The new Landpeak association
    for Bavarian enterprises is called Vereinigung der Bayerischen Wirtschaft
    (VBW). On 17 December the constituent assembly of the VBW elected Erich
    Sennebogen as president.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A new three-year collective agreement was signed at Cargolux SA, the
    Luxembourg air freight company, in December 1997. It contains substantial
    improvements, including the restoration of certain benefits lost in 1995.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Although half of the private sector bargaining area conducted collective
    bargaining in the spring (DK9705110F [1]), 1997 was a relatively peaceful
    year on the Danish labour market, with fewer conflicts than in previous years
    when bargaining occurred. According to statistics from the Danish Employers'
    Confederation (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) the number of working days
    lost due to industrial action in 1997 - at 82,992 days - was significantly
    lower than in 1995 and 1993. The main reason for the lower figure is that
    only half of the private sector area conducted collective bargaining in 1997,
    while the whole area did so in 1995 and 1993.


  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Ireland's Labour Court made its biggest ever individual equal pay award
    recently when it held that four communications assistants represented by the
    Civil and Public Services Union (CPSU) and employed by the Irish Aviation
    Authority were entitled to equal pay with two male radio officers. The
    government department with overall responsibility for the Authority, the
    Department of Public Enterprise, has decided to accept the ruling, which was
    issued on 28 November 1997 and which means each of the four women will
    receive a total of IEP 100,000 on a backdated basis.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    A strike in the mining companies, Hunosa and Minas de Figaredo, escalated
    into a well-supported general strike in the whole Spanish mining industry in
    January 1998.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    Joining the European Union in 1995 made it necessary for Austria to improve
    the regulations on employee protection against hazards. This included
    particularly the appointment of safety officers in enterprises, the
    documentation of hazards, and the availability and job descriptions of
    occupational medical practitioners. A plan was drawn up to implement better
    protection in stages, starting in 1997 with firms employing more than 100
    workers. On 1 January 1998, firms with between 51 and 100 employees became
    subject to the new regulations, and on 1 January 1999 those with 11 to 50
    employees will follow. Finally in 2000, the remaining companies with 10 or
    fewer employees will also be covered.

  • Article
    27 januar 1998

    An unusual collective agreement has been concluded between the Swedish Energy
    Employers' Association (Energiföretagens Arbetsgivareförening, EFA) on the
    one hand, and the Association of Graduate Engineers
    (Civilingenjörsförbundet, CF), the Swedish Union for Technical and Clerical
    Employees in Industry and Services (Svenska Industritjänstemannaförbundet
    SIF), the Association of Management and Professional Staff (Ledarna) and the
    Union of Service and Communication (SEKO) on the other. The agreement, which
    came into force on 1 January 1998, regulates general terms of employment for
    around 15,000 workers in private energy enterprises and in the state-owned
    Vattenfall group. The agreement fulfils many of the current requirements put
    forward by employers, and the managing director of EFA, Björn Tibell, calls
    it "pioneering".


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications

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