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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In recent years the Spanish economy has undergone a process of recovery.
    After the recession of the early 1990s, a cycle of growth began, parallel to
    that of other countries in the European Union. In 1997, GDP rose by 3.4% -
    compared with 2.1% in 1994, 2.8% in 1995 and 2.1% in 1996. This was mainly
    due to the increase in domestic consumption, investment and industrial
    activity and the resurgence of construction. The prospects for growth in 1998
    are also optimistic, with forecasts of around 3.6%. This has been
    particularly helped by the fall in inflation, which at 2.1% in 1997, was the
    lowest for 30 years. This low inflation rate has led to a reduction in
    interest rates, which were very high in the 1980s. The public deficit has
    also been reduced through restrictive budgets and privatisation of public
    companies (ES9709123N [1]). The public deficit stood at 2.6% of GDP in 1997.
    According to Eurostat figures, the unemployment rate stood at 20.8% in 1997,
    compared with 22.2% in 1996 and 24.3% in 1995. The number of those in
    employment increased by about 371,000 in 1997 in comparison with 1996.
    Nevertheless, fewer jobs were created than in the previous year, despite
    greater economic growth.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/a-new-step-in-the-privatisation-of-the-industrial-public-sector-in-spain

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    A November 1997 orientation debate on employment policy in Luxembourg's
    Chamber of Deputies has prompted several motions. The most important of these
    urges the Government to work towards an agreement between the social partners
    that contains both the outlines of a framework law on working time and ways
    of gradually reducing working hours, to be negotiated through collective or
    company-level agreements.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    During 1997, the annual GDP growth rate reached 3.4%. Economic growth was
    accompanied by a fall in inflation: the annual increase in the GDP deflator
    (which measures changes in prices of all goods and services included in
    national GDP) fell from 14.4% in 1993 to 6.5% in 1997; while the consumer
    prices index rose by 5.2% in 1997. Particularly spectacular was the reduction
    of the public deficit from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 5% in 1997. However,
    increased production, reduced inflation and improved public finances were
    accompanied by a constant rise in unemployment, from 9.6% in 1994 to 10.4% in
    1997, while long-term unemployment now accounts for 50% of all unemployed
    persons. The improvement in public finances was also accompanied by a
    significant rise in tensions in the field of industrial relations.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The Austria Government has taken three new measures aimed at facilitating
    youth employment. In the first, a clause was added to the Federal Tendering
    Act (Bundesvergabegesetz), as part of the general tendering conditions,
    requiring that in awarding tenders for contracts, the employment of persons
    on a training contract be taken into account. Parliament approved this
    change. No explicit mention of apprenticeship contracts was made, because
    this would conflict with European Union regulations. The new clause takes
    effect from 1 January 1998.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Following the severe economic recession of the early 1990s, the Finnish
    economy has more recently been characterised by a period of economic growth
    and relative stability. In 1997, economic growth rates amounted to 5.9%. This
    improved economic position also led to a reduction in unemployment, from a
    rate of 15.6% in 1996 to 14.5% in 1997. However, employment opportunities
    were primarily generated for young and highly-skilled people, while older
    workers and the low-skilled continued to suffer from long-term unemployment.
    Inflation decreased to 1.3% and the public deficit was reduced to 0.9% of
    GDP.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the German system of branch-level
    collective agreements (branchenbezogene Flächentarifverträge) has been in
    an continuing process of change in the direction of a differentiation between
    companies of collectively agreed norms and standards, and a decentralisation
    of bargaining competence to the company level. Two basic paths to
    decentralisation can be distinguished:

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1993, the Restaurants and Brewery Workers Union in Denmark (Restaurations-
    og Bryggeriarbejder Forbund i Danmark, RBF) signed a collective agreement
    with a nationwide restaurant chain. RBF was able to come to terms with the
    restaurant chain, which was not a member of an employers' organisation, only
    by agreeing to less favourable terms and conditions (in terms of flexible
    working hours and overtime premia) than those specified in its main agreement
    with the sectoral employers' association, the Association of the Hotel,
    Restaurant, and Leisure Industry in Denmark (Hotel, Restaurations- og
    Turisterhvervets Arbejdsgiverforening, HORESTA).

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The 1997 /Warwick pay and working time survey/ shows, on the one hand, that
    formal "benchmarking", or even measurement, of employee performance is not as
    common in the UK as might be expected. Benchmarking against the international
    competition is particularly infrequent, even where firms are experiencing an
    internationalisation of market boundaries or in the nature of their
    competition. On the other hand, the survey finds that employers do have
    access to a wide range of other formal and informal networks through which
    they can share and compare their experiences. The evidence shows that
    managers do use these opportunities for information-sharing when making
    changes to pay and working time systems. In practice, therefore, a looser
    form of benchmarking might already be widespread, and this might be a useful
    consideration to take into account when the Government - which regards
    benchmarking as a vital tool for improving employment relations and business
    performance - seeks to develop policy proposals in a White Paper in 1998.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications