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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Measures to improve the working environment and the health and safety of the
    workforce have been the cornerstone of the European social dimension since
    the inception of the European Communities. Articles 117 and 118 of the Treaty
    of Rome called for the Community to be instrumental in achieving the
    improvement of living and working conditions in the Member States. These
    provisions were strengthened under Article 118A [1] of the Single European
    Act (which came into force in 1987), and a Directive [2] on the introduction
    of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at
    the workplace (89/391/EEC) was subsequently adopted by the Labour and Social
    Affairs Council in June 1989. This framework Directive, intended as a
    spearhead for other individual Directives, lays down fundamental requirements
    for health and safety at work, including the obligations of employers and
    workers, the establishment and maintenance of prevention, protection and
    emergency services at the workplace, comprehensive information and training
    and consultation of workers in all matters relating to health and safety. The
    adoption of the framework Directive led to a spate of Community legislation
    on health and safety related issues between 1989 and 1992. The individual
    Directives fall into three main categories. They aim to:

    [1] http://www.europa.eu.int/abc/obj/treaties/en/entr6d08.htm#Article_118a
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/comm/sg/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c11113.htm

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The retailing and wholesaling pay negotiations for 1998, begun on 8 October
    1997, were concluded on 31 October 1997. The Trade Union of Salaried
    Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) had initially demanded a
    3.5% hike in minimum rates while the Austrian Chamber of the Economy
    (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ) offered fixed amounts varying by grade
    and resulting, on average, in a pay rise below inflation (AT9710140N [1]).
    The social partners finally settled for an average 1.7% increase in minimum
    salaries from 1 January 1998 and a maintenance of the absolute difference
    between minimum and actual salaries. Apprenticeship remuneration will be
    raised by 1.6%. Given that inflation is expected to run at 1.4% ,a very
    moderate rise in real incomes was thus achieved. Some 320,000 employees
    (60%-70% are women) - about 10% of the country's workforce - are directly
    affected by the new agreement and another 130,000 indirectly because their
    wage or salary settlements usually reflect the one concluded in commerce. One
    year previously, GPA asked for a 4.5% pay rise and eventually agreed to an
    average 1.95%.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/retail-salaries-under-negotiation

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    A decision made in October 1997 by the Mediation and Arbitration Service
    (OMED) regulates wages and working conditions more favourably throughout
    Greece for workers in enterprises providing security services, an
    increasingly important branch of the services sector.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 27 November 1997, the Finnish Firefighters' Union (Suomen Palomiesliitto,
    SPAL) called a strike which continues at the time of writing (11 December).
    The action arises from disagreements about firefighters' pay system, working
    hours and retirement age. An attempt at conciliation ended without results
    and the national conciliator, Juhani Salonius, came to the conclusion that
    the parties stood so far apart that not even a proposal for a settlement
    could be made.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In December 1997, the Italian State Railways signed an agreement with
    transport workers' trade unions on the management of redundancies. The
    agreement provides for the creation of a fund to deal with redundant staff by
    means of "mobility" procedures, the Wages Guarantee Fund, job-security
    agreements and early retirement. An important aspect of the agreement was the
    mediation by the Government.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    At the end of 1997, the First Chamber of the Dutch Parliament rejected a
    proposal to give employees the legal right to work part time. Employers
    opposed the bill, while the trade unions were divided on the subject.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In late 1997, the Committee on Freedom of Association of the International
    Labour Organisation (ILO) issued a report favourable to the pay claims of
    Spanish civil servants.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    EUROCADRES (the Council for European Professional and Managerial Staff)
    represents over 4 million professional and managerial staff in Europe who are
    members of trade unions affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation.
    The organisation hosted a conference on 2-3 December 1997 to showcase what it
    sees as the underpublicised problem of long working hours among Europe's
    managers. Trends in working hours for these workers, who are potentially
    excluded from the coverage of much of the 1993 EU Directive on certain
    aspects of the organisation of working time (93/104/EC [1]), have run counter
    to the general trend towards a reduction of working hours. The conference,
    which was attended by 150 individuals from among EUROCADRES' member
    organisations and other European and national social partner organisations
    and institutions, focused on the findings of a report on /Professional
    employees' working hours in Europe/ produced by Jean-Yves Boulin (University
    of Paris-Dauphine) and Robert Plasman (Free University of Brussels).

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/sg/scadplus/leg/en/cha/c10405.htm

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications