Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On Wednesday 17 December 1997, negotiations between the Confederation of
    Vocational Unions (YS) and the Confederation of Norwegian Business and
    Industry (NHO) regarding a new Basic Agreement broke down after only a few
    hours of negotiations. In Norway, Basic Agreements between the main social
    partner organisations lay down a set of principles and procedures which
    regulate their relationship.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    CNPF, the main French employers' association, elected Ernest-Antoine
    Seillière as its president in December 1997. Mr Seillière restated his
    fundamental opposition to the current bill to introduce the 35-hour working
    week, and announced far-reaching reform of CNPF's organisation.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    An agreement was signed in December 1997 by management and trade unions at
    the Italian metalworking company Wam, covering flexibility, continuing
    training and cuts in working hours to 35 hours a week for shiftworkers.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In November 1997, La Caixa - a prominent Spanish savings bank - signed an
    agreement with the trade unions to promote the creation of permanent jobs.
    This agreement is a model that will be followed in five other banks with
    which the CC.OO trade union is negotiating similar terms.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    European and domestic legislation is leading to greater pressure for
    competition in Dutch public transport. The resulting measures have led during
    the 1990s to practically permanent disputes between trade unions and works
    councils on the one hand, and employers and the Ministry of Transport, Public
    Works and Water Management on the other. October and November 1997 saw
    further industrial action in this area.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 16 December 1997 about 20,000 employees in the "social" or not-for-profit
    sector - also known as the "white sector" - protested in the streets of
    Brussels. They came from a wide variety of subsectors, including home care,
    care for the elderly, residential youth work, sheltered accommodation,
    hospitals and so on (BE9712127N [1]), but they all united behind the slogan:
    "The elastic band is stretched too far."


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1997, GDP growth stood at 3.9%, or 3.5% for mainland Norway (offshore
    sector excluded). The consumer prices index rose by 2.5%, compared with 1.3%
    in 1996. The 1997 unemployment rate was 4.2%, against 4.9% for 1996. In 1997,
    Norway had a central government surplus of NOK 65.8 billion (ECU 8.2
    billion). However, if revenues from the petroleum sector are excluded, Norway
    had a public budget deficit of NOK 20.2 billion (ECU 2.5 billion). The
    surplus will be transferred to the Government Petroleum Fund.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    According to the latest figures, over the first three quarters of 1997, GDP
    grew by 2.2%, while the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies
    (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, INSEE), puts
    overall economic growth for the year at 2.5%. The public sector deficit stood
    at 3% of GDP. Inflation was brought under control - 1.1% in 1997, down from
    1.7% in 1996. The employment situation was varied. At the end of December
    1997, unemployment stood at 3,027,800, representing a slight 1.7% improvement
    on figures for the same period in 1996. These overall figures conceal quite
    different rates of unemployment among men and women and various age groups:
    unemployment among the young has decreased by 9% over the year; the
    percentage of women in employment continues to increase but at a slower pace;
    whereas the percentage of men in employment is continuing to fall, reflecting
    the decline in sectors dominated by male employment. However, the majority of
    women are employed on "non-traditional" contracts such as fixed-term or
    part-time ones - almost 40% of women are recruited on fixed-term contracts.
    There has also been a 1.2% increase in the number of long-term unemployed
    people. At the end of December 1997, they accounted for 36.8% of overall


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications