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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The Austria Government has taken three new measures aimed at facilitating
    youth employment. In the first, a clause was added to the Federal Tendering
    Act (Bundesvergabegesetz), as part of the general tendering conditions,
    requiring that in awarding tenders for contracts, the employment of persons
    on a training contract be taken into account. Parliament approved this
    change. No explicit mention of apprenticeship contracts was made, because
    this would conflict with European Union regulations. The new clause takes
    effect from 1 January 1998.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    During 1997, the annual GDP growth rate reached 3.4%. Economic growth was
    accompanied by a fall in inflation: the annual increase in the GDP deflator
    (which measures changes in prices of all goods and services included in
    national GDP) fell from 14.4% in 1993 to 6.5% in 1997; while the consumer
    prices index rose by 5.2% in 1997. Particularly spectacular was the reduction
    of the public deficit from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 5% in 1997. However,
    increased production, reduced inflation and improved public finances were
    accompanied by a constant rise in unemployment, from 9.6% in 1994 to 10.4% in
    1997, while long-term unemployment now accounts for 50% of all unemployed
    persons. The improvement in public finances was also accompanied by a
    significant rise in tensions in the field of industrial relations.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Following the severe economic recession of the early 1990s, the Finnish
    economy has more recently been characterised by a period of economic growth
    and relative stability. In 1997, economic growth rates amounted to 5.9%. This
    improved economic position also led to a reduction in unemployment, from a
    rate of 15.6% in 1996 to 14.5% in 1997. However, employment opportunities
    were primarily generated for young and highly-skilled people, while older
    workers and the low-skilled continued to suffer from long-term unemployment.
    Inflation decreased to 1.3% and the public deficit was reduced to 0.9% of
    GDP.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1993, the Restaurants and Brewery Workers Union in Denmark (Restaurations-
    og Bryggeriarbejder Forbund i Danmark, RBF) signed a collective agreement
    with a nationwide restaurant chain. RBF was able to come to terms with the
    restaurant chain, which was not a member of an employers' organisation, only
    by agreeing to less favourable terms and conditions (in terms of flexible
    working hours and overtime premia) than those specified in its main agreement
    with the sectoral employers' association, the Association of the Hotel,
    Restaurant, and Leisure Industry in Denmark (Hotel, Restaurations- og
    Turisterhvervets Arbejdsgiverforening, HORESTA).

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The European Commission has long emphasised the importance of small and
    medium-sized enterprises (SME s) in job creation. The recently published 1997
    annual report [1] by theEuropean Observatory for SMEs [2] shows a complex
    picture in terms of the employment impact of SMEs. According to the report,
    there are over 19 million enterprises active in the non-primary private
    sector in Europe (including Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland).
    Of these, around 99.8% fall into the EU classification of SMEs. Based on the
    analysis of trends between 1988 and 1997, the report suggests that during the
    1990-3 recession, the decline in employment was greater in large or
    medium-sized companies than in SMEs, thus suggesting that larger enterprises
    are more vulnerable to fluctuations in the business cycle. However,
    employment figures in SMEs nevertheless declined to 110 million persons. The
    report shows that while employment remains more stable in SMEs during periods
    of recession, in times of economic recovery, employment growth tends to be
    concentrated in the larger enterprises. SMEs were found to create more jobs
    than large enterprises, but they equally destroy more jobs. Significantly,
    the net rate of employment growth tends to be the same for enterprises of
    different sizes.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg23/download/eurobsen.pdf
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/en/comm/dg23/guide_en/eurobs.htm

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The 1997 /Warwick pay and working time survey/ shows, on the one hand, that
    formal "benchmarking", or even measurement, of employee performance is not as
    common in the UK as might be expected. Benchmarking against the international
    competition is particularly infrequent, even where firms are experiencing an
    internationalisation of market boundaries or in the nature of their
    competition. On the other hand, the survey finds that employers do have
    access to a wide range of other formal and informal networks through which
    they can share and compare their experiences. The evidence shows that
    managers do use these opportunities for information-sharing when making
    changes to pay and working time systems. In practice, therefore, a looser
    form of benchmarking might already be widespread, and this might be a useful
    consideration to take into account when the Government - which regards
    benchmarking as a vital tool for improving employment relations and business
    performance - seeks to develop policy proposals in a White Paper in 1998.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the German system of branch-level
    collective agreements (branchenbezogene Flächentarifverträge) has been in
    an continuing process of change in the direction of a differentiation between
    companies of collectively agreed norms and standards, and a decentralisation
    of bargaining competence to the company level. Two basic paths to
    decentralisation can be distinguished:

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    At the beginning of 1997 the Minister for Equal Opportunities Affairs, Labour
    Law and Working Hours appointed the director general of the National
    Institute of Economic Research, Svante Öberg, as a special investigator with
    the task of proposing measures to promote a satisfactory system of pay
    determination (SE9704111F [1]). On 27 November 1997, he presented his first
    results (Medlingsinstitut och lönestatistikSOU 1997:164).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/new-rules-for-pay-determination-claimed-to-lead-to-better-agreements

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    At the beginning of December 1997, the Austrian Government announced plans
    for a "clean workplace campaign" (Aktion sauberer Arbeitsplatz) aimed at
    combating illegal employment. The main objective is to get a better grip on
    taxable income but a secondary aim is clearly to please the social partners
    after 1997's acrimonious pensions debate (AT9709134N [1]). At the Ministry of
    Labour, Health and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit
    und Soziales, BMAGS), six working groups were set up with a remit to devise
    tighter controls and more adequate penalties. In all working groups, the
    social partners are included along with representatives of various
    ministries.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/pensions-reform-remains-a-divisive-issue

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications