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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    A recent decree, approved in November 1997, has significantly reformed the
    system of employers' representation for collective bargaining within the
    Italian public administration. This article discusses the changes made to the
    structure and tasks of Aran, the agency which negotiates with trade unions in
    the public administration. An important effect of these changes will be a
    greater role for individual units of the public administration in the
    bargaining system.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The Luxembourg Presidency of the European Union organised a special
    Employment Summit [1] European Council meeting on 20-21 November 1997
    (EU9711168F [2]). In order to prepare for the event, the Belgian Government
    and social partners organised a conference aimed at formulating the point of
    view of the Government and the social partners with respect to the four
    priorities proposed by the European Commission for discussion at the Summit
    in Luxembourg, as follows.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Four large Dutch trade unions, which already cooperate in the FNV
    confederation, have recently decided to merge. The merger is to be finalised
    in January 1998, resulting in a union with almost half a million members. For
    the first time, those receiving social benefits and older people will be
    incorporated into the organisation as a distinct industrial group. This
    merger has also prompted more intensive cooperation between other Dutch

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The European Parliament Committee on Employment and Social Affairs adopted a
    report in October 1997 on the framework agreement on part-time work [1]
    concluded by the European-level social partners on 6 June 1997 (EU9706131F
    [2]). The agreement is currently being given legal force via a draft Council
    Directive (EU9707139N [3]) The Committee's report expresses the European
    Parliament's support for enshrining the principle of non-discrimination
    against part-time workers in legislation, but criticises the fact that the
    agreement is limited to part-time work and does not cover other forms of
    "atypical" employment. The agreement also excludes social security matters
    which, it argues, need to be covered by legislation. In this respect the
    agreement falls short of the standards enshrined in International Labour
    Organisation (ILO) conventions. The report argues that, without such a basis,
    the agreement allows exceptions to the principle of non-discrimination on the
    basis of "technical" or "objective" reasons, such as part-time workers who
    work only on a casual basis, or who do not qualify because of certain
    thresholds based on length of service, working time and salary conditions.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    As with other countries such as Sweden (SE9705120F [1]), Norway (NO9708118F
    [2]) and Spain (ES9702103N [3]), Germany is witnessing an ongoing debate on
    employment with temporary work agencies (TWA s) and its industrial relations
    consequences. Against the background of steadily increasing numbers of TWA
    employees, the German Trade Union Confederation (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund,
    DGB) recently published a report on employment with TWAs which includes calls
    for legal restrictions and stricter regulations.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Trade unions and management at Mercedes Benz's Spanish operations agreed in
    mid-1997 to create a pool of working hours aimed at achieving greater
    flexibility in the use of labour and avoiding redundancies. They have also
    agreed to convert temporary contracts into permanent contracts and to
    introduce a retirement procedure.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Austria's pension reform is now almost complete (AT9707118F [1]). Below, the
    main features of the reform as they affect civil servants and employees are
    reported. The pensions schemes for farmers and employers have also been
    reformed, but are not reported here.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    A new statute covering workers who attend study courses was published in
    November 1997 in the /Diário da República/ (the Portuguese Official
    Gazette). Though it widens the eligibility of workers who can benefit and has
    been broadly welcomed, it does not go far enough for some organisations.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The finance law for 1998 approved by the Italian Government in November 1997
    contains a number of proposals for welfare reform in the areas of social
    security and pensions. As regards pensions, the Government has signed an
    agreement with the Cgil, Cisl and Uil trade union confederations which makes
    some changes to the previous reform introduced in 1995. The Government's
    proposals have been severely criticised by the employers' associations.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications