A new bill to reform private sector pensions in Luxembourg, presented in
August 1997, does not seek structural reform; instead it confines itself to
specific changes and to the introduction of a two-tier system of disability
On 12 November 1997, a communication was adopted by the European Commission
which presented an Action Plan to improve the conditions for the free
movement of workers within the European Union (EU). The right to free
movement of workers within the European Union was originally set out in
Article 48 of the Treaty of Rome and includes the right for any European
citizen to enter the territory of any Member State in order to work or look
for work. However, despite the fact that the right to free movement for
workers has one of the most developed legal frameworks in EU law, there exist
gaps and flaws which were highlighted by the "high-level panel" on the free
movement of people in March 1997.
On 11 November 1997, the first Senate of the German Federal Labour Court
(Bundesarbeitsgericht, BAG) ruled that the monitoring of works councils by a
company's data protection officer is inadmissible (Decision 1 ABR 21/97 of 11
In conjunction with the pension reform package which is being enacted in late
1997 (AT9711144F ), an entitlement for older workers to work part-time has
been introduced. This complements an entitlement to a part-time pension which
was introduced previously, and has now been reformed. The part-time pension
was formerly available only when all the requirements for early retirement
were fulfilled, but from 1998 this will no longer be necessary. It will now
be sufficient to have accumulated 300 months (25 years) of pension insurance
contributions, of which 108 months (9 years) must have been made within the
last 15 years. The pension will vary according to the other income received.
In November 1997, a declaration was adopted by Portugal's tripartite Standing
Committee for Social Concertation, prior to the special EU "jobs summit" in
Luxembourg. The declaration covers growth and employment, the strengthening
of policies of economic and social cohesion, and national-level social
In mid-October 1997, the Swedish Metal Workers' Union
(Metallindustriarbetareförbundet) and the Association of Swedish Engineering
Industries (Verkstadsföreningen) arrived at an amicable settlement in which
a safety steward was awarded substantial damages.
In late 1997, the Greek Federation of Bank Employee Unions expressed its
concerns about the impact of EMU on employment in banks, and called on
employers, the Government and the Bank of Greece to take part in a dialogue
to tackle any potentially unfavourable consequences for workers .
In November 1997, within two weeks of one another, two companies in the
Netherlands have announced that they intend to move part of their production
abroad. A third company wants to close down completely.
The "hand-over" employment contract, which has been available in Spain for
over a decade for workers aged over 60, has not had much success. However, in
late 1997, the Government proposed to amend the scheme to experiment with the
part-time extension of working life for workers aged over 65 in order to
create part-time employment for young people.
The Luxembourg Government's August 1997 bill on complementary pensions has
been roundly criticised by employers' associations as it provides for a fixed
tax on pension contributions, thereby increasing total payroll costs, and
also jeopardises growth in international pension funds.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Digital technologies have made it possible for many workers to carry out their work anytime and anywhere, with consequent advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages, for remote workers and teleworkers in particular, include the risk to health and well-being linked to long working hours. To address this issue, there have been calls for the ‘right to disconnect’. This report includes case studies that chart the implementation and impact of the right to disconnect at workplace level.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).