In October and November 1997, based on proposals by Martin Bangemann, the
commissioner responsible for industry, the European Commission adopted
communications to the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament and
Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, aimed at
improving the competitiveness of two sectors of European industry -
textiles/clothing and construction.
The merger of two of Ireland's largest dairy companies, Avonmore and
Waterford, to form the new Avonmore Waterford Group (AWG), which was approved
during the summer of 1997 by shareholders, is to involve a major
rationalisation programme, details of which were announced on 24 November.
The company is looking for at least 750 job cuts from a total workforce of
6,500 in Ireland. It is now the fourth largest dairy company in Europe and
the fourth largest in terms of worldwide cheese production.
In late 1997, trade unions representing Portuguese lorry drivers began the
process of bargaining over a new collective agreement for 1998. In contrast
with their French counterparts, Portuguese lorry drivers seem unlikely to
take high-profile industrial action in support of their demands.
In September/October 1997, the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs
(Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales, BMAGS) published a
report based on commissioned research undertaken by Birgit Buchinger, Ulrike
Gschwandtner and others on the use and prevalence of performance-based wage
systems in Austria. "Leistung lohnt sich nicht"/. Zur Dekonstruktion des
Mythos Leistungslohn/ ("Performance doesn't pay"/: The deconstruction of the
myth of payment by results/) is available free of charge from the Ministry as
Research Report in Social and Labour Market Policy No. 60. What follows is a
summary of the report's contents and findings.
The Luxembourg Presidency of the European Union organised a special
Employment Summit  European Council meeting on 20-21 November 1997
(EU9711168F ). In order to prepare for the event, the Belgian Government
and social partners organised a conference aimed at formulating the point of
view of the Government and the social partners with respect to the four
priorities proposed by the European Commission for discussion at the Summit
in Luxembourg, as follows.
A recent decree, approved in November 1997, has significantly reformed the
system of employers' representation for collective bargaining within the
Italian public administration. This article discusses the changes made to the
structure and tasks of Aran, the agency which negotiates with trade unions in
the public administration. An important effect of these changes will be a
greater role for individual units of the public administration in the
Four large Dutch trade unions, which already cooperate in the FNV
confederation, have recently decided to merge. The merger is to be finalised
in January 1998, resulting in a union with almost half a million members. For
the first time, those receiving social benefits and older people will be
incorporated into the organisation as a distinct industrial group. This
merger has also prompted more intensive cooperation between other Dutch
Trade unions and management at Mercedes Benz's Spanish operations agreed in
mid-1997 to create a pool of working hours aimed at achieving greater
flexibility in the use of labour and avoiding redundancies. They have also
agreed to convert temporary contracts into permanent contracts and to
introduce a retirement procedure.
The European Parliament Committee on Employment and Social Affairs adopted a
report in October 1997 on the framework agreement on part-time work 
concluded by the European-level social partners on 6 June 1997 (EU9706131F
). The agreement is currently being given legal force via a draft Council
Directive (EU9707139N ) The Committee's report expresses the European
Parliament's support for enshrining the principle of non-discrimination
against part-time workers in legislation, but criticises the fact that the
agreement is limited to part-time work and does not cover other forms of
"atypical" employment. The agreement also excludes social security matters
which, it argues, need to be covered by legislation. In this respect the
agreement falls short of the standards enshrined in International Labour
Organisation (ILO) conventions. The report argues that, without such a basis,
the agreement allows exceptions to the principle of non-discrimination on the
basis of "technical" or "objective" reasons, such as part-time workers who
work only on a casual basis, or who do not qualify because of certain
thresholds based on length of service, working time and salary conditions.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This report examines a number of collective labour disputes involving industrial action in EU Member States, Norway and the UK. It provides a comprehensive study of each labour dispute, including information on industrial action events and the context for each dispute, as well as the relevant topics, actors, attempts at resolution and outcomes. Different types of collective labour disputes and their occurrence in various countries and sectors are presented, indicating how they are linked to different industrial relations regimes.
Social dialogue lies at the heart of the EU treaties and governance. Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This report focuses on the timely and meaningful involvement of national social partners in the preparation of the new resilience and recovery plans and the national reform programmes (NRPs) that were temporarily integrated under the European Semester in 2021.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2021 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2021. The range of topics as a result is broad, from the growing diversity of employment across EU regions to developments in minimum wages, and of course the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the gas sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the gas sector in the EU Member States.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
Hospital and civil aviation workers have been severely impacted by COVID-19. While hospitals are on the frontline when it comes to fighting this global pandemic, civil aviation is experiencing the most challenging crisis ever encountered in the sector. This study explores how social dialogue and collective bargaining are playing a role in the way both sectors are adapting to the pandemic. What kind of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The COVID-19 crisis has increased inequality between social groups in health, housing, employment, income and well-being. While a small part of society was able to hold on to or increase its wealth, other groups such as women, young people, older people, people with disabilities, low- and middle-income earners and those with young children were acutely affected by the pandemic. Drawing on current research on how to best measure multidimensional inequality, this report highlights recent trends in inequality in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.