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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Denmark has experienced five years of uninterrupted economic recovery, and in
    1997 economic growth was estimated at approximately 3%. This has led to
    sizeable reductions in unemployment rates which have few parallels in Europe
    during this decade. Unemployment has been reduced from a record-high rate of
    12.4% in 1993 to 7.4% in December 1997 - a reduction equal to 205,800
    unemployed persons. The reduction has been beneficial for all groups, and
    especially for women. These positive tendencies are mirrored by an
    improvement in general government finances. Denmark will be one of the first
    countries in Europe to be able to show a surplus on the general government
    account in 1997. The current surplus of 0.7% is expected to increase to DKK
    14 billion (ECU 1.9 billion) or 1.2% of GDP in 1998. Inflation stood at 1.9%
    in 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The Irish economy has performed exceptionally well in recent years, with
    annual GNP growth averaging 6%-7% between 1994 and 1996 and standing at 6.6%
    in 1997, according to Eurostat figures. This has resulted in increased
    prosperity and living standards, and these trends are forecast to continue
    over the short to medium term. Inflation averaged 2.2% over 1994-6, and is
    expected to remain at around 2% in the foreseeable future (Eurostat puts the
    1997 figure at 1.2%). The General Government Deficit was reduced from 2.2 %
    of GDP in 1993 to around 1.5% in 1996 - Eurostat estimates a public surplus
    of 0.9% of GDP in 1997 - while the debt/GDP ratio fell from 94% in 1993 to
    76% at the end of 1996 - 66.3% in 1997, according to Eurostat. The strong
    performance of the economy has resulted in significant employment growth.
    Indeed, total employment increased by an average of over 45,000 per year
    between 1993 and 1996, while the unemployment rate declined from almost 17%
    in 1993 to just under 13% in 1996 and (according to Eurostat) 10.2% in 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Toyota, the Japan-based motor manufacturer, has a UK plant at Burnaston in
    Derbyshire, which is said to have the third-highest productivity levels of
    any car plant in Europe. It was widely expected that the company would
    continue its investment in the UK by building a new plant aimed at production
    for the small-car market in that country. However, on 10 December 1997, the
    announcement was made that the GBP 400 million assembly plant, which is
    likely to create over 2,000 jobs, will be built in Valenciennes, northern

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In November 1997, Luxembourg's Social Institute hosted a debate involving
    trade unions and employers on the Government's plan to introduce "dependence
    insurance", to cover against becoming dependent through disability, illness
    or age.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Following the special Jobs Summit [1] which took place in Luxembourg on 20-21
    November 1997 (EU9711168F [2]), the European Commission adopted a final
    proposal for Guidelines for Member States' employment policies for 1998 [3]
    on 3 December 1997. The proposal, which was adopted by the Council of Labour
    and Social Affairs Ministers on 15 December 1997 (EU9712175N [4]), launches
    the European employment strategy agreed at the Amsterdam European Council
    meeting in June 1997 (EU9706133N [5]). These guidelines now have to be
    incorporated into national employment action plans drawn up by the Member
    States in the form of national objectives. Member States are committed to
    submitting these plans in time for their examination by the European Council
    meeting to take place in Cardiff in June 1998. The implementation of these
    guidelines will be monitored regularly and an annual report will be produced
    by the Commission. This approach draws on the existing practice of
    multiannual surveillance established after the December 1994 Essen summit, to
    monitor the implementation of the recommendation drawn up at that meeting.


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    After more than eight months of negotiations, new collective agreements were
    concluded in November and December 1997 for the 1.8 million or so employees
    in the west German retail trade, ending the 1997 collective bargaining round.
    New agreements were concluded in most regional bargaining areas between the
    trade union responsible, Gewerkschaft Handel Banken Versicherungen (HBV), and
    the regional employers' associations - which are members of the national peak
    employers' association for the retail trade, Hauptverband des Deutschen
    Einzelhandels (HDE).

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    It was with confidence that the Social Democrat Government presented its
    report on the Swedish economy in 1997. When it took office in 1994, Sweden
    had one of the biggest public sector deficits in the European Union. In 1997,
    it was reduced to 0.4% of GDP, measured by EU accounting principles, and the
    consolidated debt ratio had fallen for three consecutive years. "This is a
    signal to other countries that Sweden's decision to stay outside the monetary
    union at the start is not because of a wish to pursue a less responsible
    policy than other EU member states," the Minister of Finance, Erik Åsbrink,

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The economic situation in Austria proved stable in 1997, with growth rates
    reaching 2% in real terms. These are expected to rise further to 2.7% in
    1998. Economic growth was largely export-driven as the increase in domestic
    incomes was limited. Inflation was reduced to 1.4% and is expected to remain
    at this level in 1998. The level of unemployment was steady at 4.4% and is
    expected to decrease only slightly in 1998. The budget deficit amounted to
    2.5% of GDP, which is half of the 1995 level, and it is expected that this
    decrease will continue.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    An agreement was concluded on 10 October 1997 between Norway Post and the
    Joint Federation of Postal Employees.The latter is the cooperation body for
    the two unions that organise the majority of employees in the postal service,
    the Norwegian Union of Postal Employees (DNP) and the Norwegian Union of
    Postal Workers (NPF), both of which are affiliated to the Norwegian
    Confederation of Trade Unions (LO). The agreement aims at creating a new
    infrastructure for postal operations, which involves a reduction in the
    number of sorting offices in operation. Also included in this agreement are
    measures to safeguard the jobs of approximately 1,500 employees adversely
    affected by this reorganisation.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications