The "hand-over" employment contract, which has been available in Spain for
over a decade for workers aged over 60, has not had much success. However, in
late 1997, the Government proposed to amend the scheme to experiment with the
part-time extension of working life for workers aged over 65 in order to
create part-time employment for young people.
In 1991, the Council of Ministers decided unanimously to abolish duty-free
sales for travellers within the EU, as part of the taxation and excise
measures to make the single market a reality. A seven-and-a-half year
transitional period was granted to allow duty-free operators to explore
alternative ways of carrying on business in order to avoid job losses.
In the last days of the campaign for the December 1997 election of the
members of France's Prud'hommesindustrial tribunals, the level of support for
each trade union is still uncertain. They have all been running intense local
campaigns since the beginning of 1997.
The Greek Government's proposals for the Luxembourg Jobs Summit in November
1997, drawn up following dialogue with the social partners, focused on two
groups of the population in need of special protection: young and long-term
"Personnel secondment "(personaluthyrning) is the Swedish term for the
situation whereby persons under an employment contract with one firm are
leased to work in another firm. It covers arrangements known variously as
hiring-out of labour or temporary agency work in other countries. The
practice was deregulated in Sweden in 1991 and has since increased
considerably. This led to the Social Democratic Government appointing a
commission in July 1996 to evaluate and analyse the consequences of the 1993
Act on private employment agencies and secondment of personnel. The
commission was headed by Björn Rosengren, former president of the
white-collar workers trade union federation, TCO. The Act of 1993, which was
designed by the then non-socialist government, removed the requirement that a
firm had to have a licence to be allowed to lease workers. Previously such
licences had been given to very few firms. The new Act contains only two
restrictive provisions: that the employee must not be restrained from
accepting employment in the client enterprise; and that a person who has left
his or her employment to work for a leasing firm must not be leased to his or
her previous employer until at least six months have passed.
Austria's current pensions reform aims to reduce the level of early
retirement. However, since the late 1970s, early retirement has been serving
as the main means to reduce the labour market participation rate among older
workers and thus make room for younger workers who would otherwise have been
unemployed. With early retirement now being squeezed, the social partners and
the Government have been looking for other measures to keep the participation
rate among older workers, and thus unemployment, at a relatively low level. A
new device - in the Austrian context - is a greater use of part-time work,
especially among men, which does not take workers off the labour market
altogether but reduces their hours of presence within it. As part of this
effort, the Government and the social partners agreed in November 1997 to
create, by law, the so-called "solidarity premium model"
National employers' and employees' organisations in the Netherlands
established guidelines in November 1997 for future collective bargaining. The
most important items on the bargaining table are the introduction of flexible
payment schemes and agreements regarding training and leave.
A serious crisis between the two principal Spanish trade union confederations
has erupted following CC.OO's decision in October 1997 to sign the second
general agreement for the construction sector the day before the general
strike in the sector called by UGT to protest against the high industrial
On 17 November 1997, the Finnish social partners reached an agreement on the
so-called "EMU buffers", following negotiations which have been in progress
all autumn. In order to balance out cyclical economic changes within EMU, a
total sum of up to FIM 7 billion will be collected in two buffer funds
created in the occupational pension scheme and the unemployment insurance
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This report examines the labour market changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected sectors and occupations quite differently. It identifies those labour market categories most exposed to negative labour market outcomes. It analyses how differences in confinement and public health approaches may have contributed to different outcomes. It addresses previous assessments of the extent of occupational ‘teleworkability’ and of the sectoral impact of confinement rules. The report draws on EU Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) data for its analysis.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Digital technologies have made it possible for many workers to carry out their work anytime and anywhere, with consequent advantages and disadvantages. Disadvantages, for remote workers and teleworkers in particular, include the risk to health and well-being linked to long working hours. To address this issue, there have been calls for the ‘right to disconnect’. This report includes case studies that chart the implementation and impact of the right to disconnect at workplace level.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).