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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In the context of the special Employment Summit [1] held in Luxembourg on
    20-21 November 1997, the European Centre of Enterprises with Public
    Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP) issued
    an "opinion on employment policies in Europe". In the document CEEP outlines
    its priorities in the area of employment policy, with the aim of creating
    more jobs and achieving a more even balance between the economic and social
    aspects of the EU single market.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/home.htm

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    According to recently published information, the regional metalworking sector
    employers' association Nordmetall- which represents 350 enterprises in the
    German states of Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and
    is a member of the federal sectoral employers' association Gesamtmetall- has
    founded an employers' association called Arbeitgeberverband Norddeutschland
    which will neither conclude, nor be bound by, industry-level collective
    agreements.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    As part of an experiment with a new salary system for civil servants, due to
    begin on 1 January 1998, senior civil servants were to negotiate part of
    their salaries on a personal basis without the participation of their trade
    union. This, according to Danish Confederation of Professional Associations
    (Akademikernes Centralorganisation, AC), was in conflict with the Crown
    Servants Act, which provides for a right to collective bargaining. The Crown
    Servants Court upheld AC's contention in a ruling issued on 5 December 1997,
    which in practice will exclude 2,800 of the 3,200 civil servants concerned
    from taking part in the experiments from 1 January 1998.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Over the five years to 1997, growth and productivity levels in the UK have
    shown above average figures for the EU. In 1997, GDP continued to grow at
    between 3% and 3.5%. Average earnings growth fluctuated within the range of
    4.25% to 4.75%, with average pay awards remaining at around 3% for most of
    1997, but moving towards the 4% mark in the last quarter.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In late 1997, the International Monetary Fund once more asked Spain for
    greater flexibility in its labour market, but stated that it should be based
    on social dialogue. The Prime Minister and several of his ministers have
    stated their support for the introduction of such a new reform, but the trade
    unions are radically opposed to any changes until the results of 1997's
    "April agreements" have been analysed.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 9 December 1997 the pension reform for those employees of the Austrian
    Federal Railways (Österreichische Bundesbahnen, ÖBB) with civil servant
    status was concluded. This was the final part of the pensions reform the
    Government had set out to achieve at the beginning of 1007 (AT9711144F [1]).
    Because ÖBB pensions are not regulated by law or by collective agreement but
    by individual employment contracts, the reform posed serious problems. It was
    finally achieved by way of a delicate balance between legal reform and works
    agreement. This was accompanied by serious tensions within the coalition
    Government.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-social-policies/pension-reform-nears-completion

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The year 1997 saw: an increase in GDP of 3.5% (according to Eurostat
    figures); an inflation rate of 1.9%, which was lower than the previous year;
    and a low government deficit of 0.8% of GDP (according to national figures).
    The unemployment rate for the year was 6.7% (down from 7.3% in 1996). Low
    skill levels and inadequate management strategies have been identified as
    being among the key causes of high unemployment.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In June 1997, the Swedish Employers' Confederation (Svenska
    Arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) gave the trade union negotiating cartel, the
    Federation of Salaried Employees in Industry and Services
    (Privattjänstemannakartellen, PTK) notice of termination of the so-called
    adjustment agreement (omställningsavtalet), the purpose of which is to
    facilitate the adjustment for workers and employers in the event of
    collective redundancies (SE9709137F [1]). SAF argued that the agreement was
    too costly for the employers and wanted /inter alia/ to convert the Council
    for Redundancy Support and Advice (Trygghetsrådet) - which is based on the
    agreement - from a foundation to a private company, subject to open
    competition.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/working-conditions-undefined/council-for-redundancy-support-and-advice-under-debate

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    After many difficult attempts to resolve the problem of illegal immigration
    and work in Greece, the process of legalising the status of aliens living and
    working in Greece is set to begin soon, following a government initiative in
    December 1997.

Series

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

Forthcoming publications