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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    On 12 November 1997, a communication was adopted by the European Commission
    which presented an Action Plan to improve the conditions for the free
    movement of workers within the European Union (EU). The right to free
    movement of workers within the European Union was originally set out in
    Article 48 of the Treaty of Rome and includes the right for any European
    citizen to enter the territory of any Member State in order to work or look
    for work. However, despite the fact that the right to free movement for
    workers has one of the most developed legal frameworks in EU law, there exist
    gaps and flaws which were highlighted by the "high-level panel" on the free
    movement of people in March 1997.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    One stage in the restructuring process of Electrolux, the Swedish-owned
    multinational, seems to have been concluded in late 1997. Thanks to the
    financial support of Spanish central and regional government, new investments
    will be made in the Spanish plant in La Rioja. However, several of the
    group's plants have been closed elsewhere in Europe.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In conjunction with the pension reform package which is being enacted in late
    1997 (AT9711144F [1]), an entitlement for older workers to work part-time has
    been introduced. This complements an entitlement to a part-time pension which
    was introduced previously, and has now been reformed. The part-time pension
    was formerly available only when all the requirements for early retirement
    were fulfilled, but from 1998 this will no longer be necessary. It will now
    be sufficient to have accumulated 300 months (25 years) of pension insurance
    contributions, of which 108 months (9 years) must have been made within the
    last 15 years. The pension will vary according to the other income received.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In late 1997, the Greek Federation of Bank Employee Unions expressed its
    concerns about the impact of EMU on employment in banks, and called on
    employers, the Government and the Bank of Greece to take part in a dialogue
    to tackle any potentially unfavourable consequences for workers .

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In November 1997, a declaration was adopted by Portugal's tripartite Standing
    Committee for Social Concertation, prior to the special EU "jobs summit" in
    Luxembourg. The declaration covers growth and employment, the strengthening
    of policies of economic and social cohesion, and national-level social

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In 1991, the Council of Ministers decided unanimously to abolish duty-free
    sales for travellers within the EU, as part of the taxation and excise
    measures to make the single market a reality. A seven-and-a-half year
    transitional period was granted to allow duty-free operators to explore
    alternative ways of carrying on business in order to avoid job losses.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications