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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The 1997 /Warwick pay and working time survey/ shows, on the one hand, that
    formal "benchmarking", or even measurement, of employee performance is not as
    common in the UK as might be expected. Benchmarking against the international
    competition is particularly infrequent, even where firms are experiencing an
    internationalisation of market boundaries or in the nature of their
    competition. On the other hand, the survey finds that employers do have
    access to a wide range of other formal and informal networks through which
    they can share and compare their experiences. The evidence shows that
    managers do use these opportunities for information-sharing when making
    changes to pay and working time systems. In practice, therefore, a looser
    form of benchmarking might already be widespread, and this might be a useful
    consideration to take into account when the Government - which regards
    benchmarking as a vital tool for improving employment relations and business
    performance - seeks to develop policy proposals in a White Paper in 1998.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the German system of branch-level
    collective agreements (branchenbezogene Flächentarifverträge) has been in
    an continuing process of change in the direction of a differentiation between
    companies of collectively agreed norms and standards, and a decentralisation
    of bargaining competence to the company level. Two basic paths to
    decentralisation can be distinguished:

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    In 1993, the Restaurants and Brewery Workers Union in Denmark (Restaurations-
    og Bryggeriarbejder Forbund i Danmark, RBF) signed a collective agreement
    with a nationwide restaurant chain. RBF was able to come to terms with the
    restaurant chain, which was not a member of an employers' organisation, only
    by agreeing to less favourable terms and conditions (in terms of flexible
    working hours and overtime premia) than those specified in its main agreement
    with the sectoral employers' association, the Association of the Hotel,
    Restaurant, and Leisure Industry in Denmark (Hotel, Restaurations- og
    Turisterhvervets Arbejdsgiverforening, HORESTA).

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    At the beginning of December 1997, the Austrian Government announced plans
    for a "clean workplace campaign" (Aktion sauberer Arbeitsplatz) aimed at
    combating illegal employment. The main objective is to get a better grip on
    taxable income but a secondary aim is clearly to please the social partners
    after 1997's acrimonious pensions debate (AT9709134N [1]). At the Ministry of
    Labour, Health and Social Affairs (Bundesministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit
    und Soziales, BMAGS), six working groups were set up with a remit to devise
    tighter controls and more adequate penalties. In all working groups, the
    social partners are included along with representatives of various


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    At the beginning of 1997 the Minister for Equal Opportunities Affairs, Labour
    Law and Working Hours appointed the director general of the National
    Institute of Economic Research, Svante Öberg, as a special investigator with
    the task of proposing measures to promote a satisfactory system of pay
    determination (SE9704111F [1]). On 27 November 1997, he presented his first
    results (Medlingsinstitut och lönestatistikSOU 1997:164).


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Traditionally there has not been a great deal of rivalry over members between
    the different employers' organisations in Norway, and in most cases the
    boundaries between the largest organisations have been clear. Recently,
    however, there have been indications that in the future we will see increased
    rivalry over members. The two largest employers' organisations, the
    Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (NHO) and the Commercial
    Employers' Association (HSH), both have ambitions of continued membership

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Following the special Jobs Summit [1] which took place in Luxembourg on 20-21
    November 1997 (EU9711168F [2]), the European Commission adopted a final
    proposal for Guidelines for Member States' employment policies for 1998 [3]
    on 3 December 1997. The proposal, which was adopted by the Council of Labour
    and Social Affairs Ministers on 15 December 1997 (EU9712175N [4]), launches
    the European employment strategy agreed at the Amsterdam European Council
    meeting in June 1997 (EU9706133N [5]). These guidelines now have to be
    incorporated into national employment action plans drawn up by the Member
    States in the form of national objectives. Member States are committed to
    submitting these plans in time for their examination by the European Council
    meeting to take place in Cardiff in June 1998. The implementation of these
    guidelines will be monitored regularly and an annual report will be produced
    by the Commission. This approach draws on the existing practice of
    multiannual surveillance established after the December 1994 Essen summit, to
    monitor the implementation of the recommendation drawn up at that meeting.


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Toyota, the Japan-based motor manufacturer, has a UK plant at Burnaston in
    Derbyshire, which is said to have the third-highest productivity levels of
    any car plant in Europe. It was widely expected that the company would
    continue its investment in the UK by building a new plant aimed at production
    for the small-car market in that country. However, on 10 December 1997, the
    announcement was made that the GBP 400 million assembly plant, which is
    likely to create over 2,000 jobs, will be built in Valenciennes, northern


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications