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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Since the late 1980s German collective bargaining has become increasingly
    overshadowed by growing mass unemployment, leading to a continuing
    controversy about pay policy and its impact on employment. Many employers'
    associations, with the support of "neo-liberal" politicians and economists,
    have embraced the arguments of orthodox neo-classical economic theory, for
    which unemployment is just a sign that the price of labour might be too high.
    Consequently, the employers' associations have demanded a very moderate pay
    policy which is supposed to make the German economy more competitive and, as
    a result, should lead to new employment. Even the trade unions have, to some
    extent, made concessions to this viewpoint by agreeing to relatively low wage
    increases and offering further income concessions in return for job

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The "hand-over" employment contract, which has been available in Spain for
    over a decade for workers aged over 60, has not had much success. However, in
    late 1997, the Government proposed to amend the scheme to experiment with the
    part-time extension of working life for workers aged over 65 in order to
    create part-time employment for young people.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The Luxembourg Government's August 1997 bill on complementary pensions has
    been roundly criticised by employers' associations as it provides for a fixed
    tax on pension contributions, thereby increasing total payroll costs, and
    also jeopardises growth in international pension funds.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In 1991, the Council of Ministers decided unanimously to abolish duty-free
    sales for travellers within the EU, as part of the taxation and excise
    measures to make the single market a reality. A seven-and-a-half year
    transitional period was granted to allow duty-free operators to explore
    alternative ways of carrying on business in order to avoid job losses.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Austria's current pensions reform aims to reduce the level of early
    retirement. However, since the late 1970s, early retirement has been serving
    as the main means to reduce the labour market participation rate among older
    workers and thus make room for younger workers who would otherwise have been
    unemployed. With early retirement now being squeezed, the social partners and
    the Government have been looking for other measures to keep the participation
    rate among older workers, and thus unemployment, at a relatively low level. A
    new device - in the Austrian context - is a greater use of part-time work,
    especially among men, which does not take workers off the labour market
    altogether but reduces their hours of presence within it. As part of this
    effort, the Government and the social partners agreed in November 1997 to
    create, by law, the so-called "solidarity premium model"

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In the last days of the campaign for the December 1997 election of the
    members of France's Prud'hommesindustrial tribunals, the level of support for
    each trade union is still uncertain. They have all been running intense local
    campaigns since the beginning of 1997.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    A study recently published by the Ministry for Qualification and Employment
    reveals that between 1974 and 1995 there was a sharp drop in union membership
    in Portugal.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The Greek Government's proposals for the Luxembourg Jobs Summit in November
    1997, drawn up following dialogue with the social partners, focused on two
    groups of the population in need of special protection: young and long-term
    unemployed people.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    "Personnel secondment "(personaluthyrning) is the Swedish term for the
    situation whereby persons under an employment contract with one firm are
    leased to work in another firm. It covers arrangements known variously as
    hiring-out of labour or temporary agency work in other countries. The
    practice was deregulated in Sweden in 1991 and has since increased
    considerably. This led to the Social Democratic Government appointing a
    commission in July 1996 to evaluate and analyse the consequences of the 1993
    Act on private employment agencies and secondment of personnel. The
    commission was headed by Björn Rosengren, former president of the
    white-collar workers trade union federation, TCO. The Act of 1993, which was
    designed by the then non-socialist government, removed the requirement that a
    firm had to have a licence to be allowed to lease workers. Previously such
    licences had been given to very few firms. The new Act contains only two
    restrictive provisions: that the employee must not be restrained from
    accepting employment in the client enterprise; and that a person who has left
    his or her employment to work for a leasing firm must not be leased to his or
    her previous employer until at least six months have passed.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications