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  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Denmark has experienced five years of uninterrupted economic recovery, and in
    1997 economic growth was estimated at approximately 3%. This has led to
    sizeable reductions in unemployment rates which have few parallels in Europe
    during this decade. Unemployment has been reduced from a record-high rate of
    12.4% in 1993 to 7.4% in December 1997 - a reduction equal to 205,800
    unemployed persons. The reduction has been beneficial for all groups, and
    especially for women. These positive tendencies are mirrored by an
    improvement in general government finances. Denmark will be one of the first
    countries in Europe to be able to show a surplus on the general government
    account in 1997. The current surplus of 0.7% is expected to increase to DKK
    14 billion (ECU 1.9 billion) or 1.2% of GDP in 1998. Inflation stood at 1.9%
    in 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The Irish economy has performed exceptionally well in recent years, with
    annual GNP growth averaging 6%-7% between 1994 and 1996 and standing at 6.6%
    in 1997, according to Eurostat figures. This has resulted in increased
    prosperity and living standards, and these trends are forecast to continue
    over the short to medium term. Inflation averaged 2.2% over 1994-6, and is
    expected to remain at around 2% in the foreseeable future (Eurostat puts the
    1997 figure at 1.2%). The General Government Deficit was reduced from 2.2 %
    of GDP in 1993 to around 1.5% in 1996 - Eurostat estimates a public surplus
    of 0.9% of GDP in 1997 - while the debt/GDP ratio fell from 94% in 1993 to
    76% at the end of 1996 - 66.3% in 1997, according to Eurostat. The strong
    performance of the economy has resulted in significant employment growth.
    Indeed, total employment increased by an average of over 45,000 per year
    between 1993 and 1996, while the unemployment rate declined from almost 17%
    in 1993 to just under 13% in 1996 and (according to Eurostat) 10.2% in 1997.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    The economic situation in Austria proved stable in 1997, with growth rates
    reaching 2% in real terms. These are expected to rise further to 2.7% in
    1998. Economic growth was largely export-driven as the increase in domestic
    incomes was limited. Inflation was reduced to 1.4% and is expected to remain
    at this level in 1998. The level of unemployment was steady at 4.4% and is
    expected to decrease only slightly in 1998. The budget deficit amounted to
    2.5% of GDP, which is half of the 1995 level, and it is expected that this
    decrease will continue.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    It was with confidence that the Social Democrat Government presented its
    report on the Swedish economy in 1997. When it took office in 1994, Sweden
    had one of the biggest public sector deficits in the European Union. In 1997,
    it was reduced to 0.4% of GDP, measured by EU accounting principles, and the
    consolidated debt ratio had fallen for three consecutive years. "This is a
    signal to other countries that Sweden's decision to stay outside the monetary
    union at the start is not because of a wish to pursue a less responsible
    policy than other EU member states," the Minister of Finance, Erik Åsbrink,

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    An agreement was concluded on 10 October 1997 between Norway Post and the
    Joint Federation of Postal Employees.The latter is the cooperation body for
    the two unions that organise the majority of employees in the postal service,
    the Norwegian Union of Postal Employees (DNP) and the Norwegian Union of
    Postal Workers (NPF), both of which are affiliated to the Norwegian
    Confederation of Trade Unions (LO). The agreement aims at creating a new
    infrastructure for postal operations, which involves a reduction in the
    number of sorting offices in operation. Also included in this agreement are
    measures to safeguard the jobs of approximately 1,500 employees adversely
    affected by this reorganisation.

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Meeting in Brussels on 15 December 1997, the Council of Labour and Social
    Affairs Ministers unanimously adopted a Directive to implement the framework
    agreement on part-time work [1] concluded by the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE), the European Centre of
    Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic
    Interest (CEEP) and the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) on 6 June
    1997 (EU9706131F [2]). This agreement aims to institute the principle of
    non-discrimination for part-time workers and to facilitate the development of
    part-time work on a voluntary basis and to contribute to the flexible
    organisation of working time in a manner which takes into account the needs
    of employers and workers. It also seeks to ensure that the equal treatment of
    part-time workers in terms of pay (pro rata) and working conditions is
    applied, unless there are "objective reasons" for differential treatment.
    Clause 5 of the agreement calls upon Member States to review any obstacles
    which may limited opportunities for part-time work and, where appropriate, to
    eliminate them.


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) was one of the key privatisation
    measures of the Conservative governments of 1979-97, which brought much
    insecurity into the lives of those who provided services to local
    authorities. Much to the joy of local authority workers and trade unions, in
    June 1997 the new Labour Government announced that the rules on CCT would be
    changed after a wide-ranging consultation exercise (UK9706141N [1]). On 21
    November 1997, local government minister Hilary Armstrong laid before
    Parliament new regulations which amend the existing framework for CCT to make
    it more flexible, and encourage local authorities to move to a "Best Value"
    based approach to service delivery, in which value to customers would take
    priority over competition per se. She said: "In due course we will be
    replacing CCT with a new legislative framework on Best Value. In the
    meantime, I want local authorities to develop Best Value ahead of primary


  • Article
    27 december 1997

    On 15 December 1997, the employers' association for newspaper publishers,
    Bundesverband Deutscher Zeitungsverleger (BDZV) and the two trade unions
    which organise journalists, IG Medien and Deutscher Journalisten-Verband
    (DJV), signed new collective agreements for the 17,000 or so journalists on
    daily newspapers. The negotiations, lasting more than three months, were
    overshadowed by strong demands for further cost reductions by the employers
    on the one hand, and accompanied by several union protest actions and warning
    strikes (Warnstreiks) on the other hand. Finally, the collective bargaining
    parties agreed on the following provisions:

  • Article
    27 december 1997

    Luxembourg has continued to experience a period of economic growth. The
    public debt accounted for 6.7% of GDP in 1997, and projections for 1998 are
    in the order of 7.7%. Eurostat calculates a public spending surplus of 1.7%
    in 1997 and the state budget for 1998 is virtually balanced. The population
    is 418,300 (of whom 142,800 are foreigners), while total employment stood at
    224,000 at the end of 1997, of whom 63,200 are cross-border workers.
    Unemployment is rising slowly and stood at 3.6% at the end of 1997. The rate
    of inflation was 1.4% in 1997.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications