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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The "Luxembourg model" of industrial relations is founded on
    institutionalised negotiation and social dialogue at all levels, but in the
    late 1990s it is not free from attacks triggered by the globalisation of
    capital and product markets. This article explains how the model works and
    assesses its future prospects.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The second "European Health and Safety at Work Week" took place from 20-25
    October 1997. This year the focus of the event was on assessing potential and
    actual workplace risks, with a particular emphasis on risks within small and
    medium-sized enterprises.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In recent years, branch-level collective bargaining (branchenbezogene
    Flächentarifverhandlungen) in Germany has been under increasing pressure
    from employers demanding more company-specific regulations on working
    conditions (DE9709229F [1]). A majority of German employers' associations,
    however, still want to continue with a modified and more flexible system of
    branch-level collective bargaining. This has now been underlined by the
    employers' association for the food industry, Arbeitgebervereinigung Nahrung
    und Genuß (ANG), which together with the food and restaurants workers'
    union, Gewerkschaft Nahrung Genuß Gaststätten (NGG), published a joint
    declaration on the future of branch-level collective agreements at the
    beginning of November 1997.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Posts and Telecommunications Austria (PTA AG) was recast as a wholly
    state-owned joint stock company in 1996 and will be privatised in 2001. In
    order to prepare for the liberalised telecoms market, as well as for the
    public share offer, it needs to shed some of the excess employment it built
    up during the years of monopoly. Like other state agencies, the post office
    was then used politically in order to absorb some of the unemployment. Now
    employment is to be reduced by 9,500 staff, of whom 6,000 are immediately to
    be offered incentives to participate in an early retirement scheme. The snag
    is that all of them are legally civil servants, and the early retirement
    scheme required a change of law in order to be permissible within the
    boundaries of the employment contracts of civil servants. After a basic
    agreement between management and the Post and Telecoms Trade Union
    (Gewerkschaft der Postbediensteten) in August 1997, parliament passed the
    necessary legislation later in the year. The legislation applies not only to
    the post office but to all state agencies being made into independent
    companies. However, while there are only about 3,000 federal civil servants
    employed in five other new companies, PTA AG employs 42,000 (out of a total
    of 57,600 employees at the end of 1996).

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In November 1997, the French Government, employers' associations and trade
    unions are trying to find a way to restart social dialogue following the
    "freeze" announced by Jean Gandois as he resigned as president of the CNPF
    employers' confederation. The Government is doubling its efforts at national
    and European levels, while contrasting attitudes have come to light within
    the CNPF itself.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In late 1997, a number of reports have revealed a large number of
    infringements of social security and labour regulations in Greek businesses,
    once again highlighting serious problems including uninsured labour, illegal
    employment and breach of collective agreements.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    A private company, OKG Aktiebolag, recently wanted to introduce routine
    compulsory drug tests for the employees at a nuclear power station, and
    initiated negotiations with the trade unions. OKG wanted to have a written
    instruction which would make such tests compulsory. The trade union which
    organises the blue-collar workers, the Swedish Electricians' Union
    (Elektrikerförbundet), refused to accept any compulsory drug tests for its
    members. The other trade unions, however, agreed to the company introducing
    compulsory drug tests and they were duly introduced. The tests were planned
    to take place every three years at the same time as a radiological

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    According to the Paperworkers' Union (Paperiliitto), the agreement reached by
    the central social partners on 17 November on the creation of "buffer funds"
    to protect Finland against cyclical economic changes within EU Economic and
    Monetary Union (EMU) is insufficient. Under the agreement (FI9711138F [1]), a
    total sum of up to FIM 7 billion will be collected in two buffer funds
    created in the occupational pension scheme and the unemployment insurance
    system. During periods of economic prosperity, employers and employees will
    pay higher contributions to the schemes than necessary, allowing rises in
    these contributions to be controlled during times of recession by using the
    buffer fund to meet benefit and pension costs.


  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In October 1997, the UGT and CC.OO union confederations began an awareness
    and action-oriented campaign in protest against the increase in the number of
    industrial accidents in Spain. The unions demand immediate compliance by
    organisations with current legislation on health and safety at work.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications