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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In September 1997, the media workers' trade union IG Medien conducted a
    survey on working time and employment among its members. IG Medien, which
    organises workers in the printing industry and paper processing as well as
    journalists, writers, artists and actors, sent out a questionnaire to more
    than 160,000 members asking for their positions on further working time
    reduction. The questionnaire was accompanied by a letter from the president
    of IG Medien, Detlef Hensche, in which he expressed the need for an open
    debate on future working time policy within the union.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In Denmark's 1997 Budget, a 40% penalty tax on overtime payments was
    introduced in the civil service in order to reduce the level of overtime
    work. It was expected that this measure would lead to more jobs being
    created. According to figures from the Ministry of Finance, overtime payments
    have declined by 40% over the first three quarters of 1997. However, the
    question remains as to whether overtime work has merely taken another form
    and been transformed into unused time off in lieu, unpaid overtime work and
    permanent pay supplements.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The increasing influence of multinational companies (MNCs) over economic
    activity is well established. The United Nations estimates that the stock of
    investments held overseas by MNCs amounts to USD 2,730 billion, roughly
    double the total five years ago. One in five workers in the developed
    economies are employed by MNCs while intra-enterprise trade within MNCs has
    now become the single most important source of international economic
    exchange. The influence of MNCs is greater in Britain than in any other
    European country. Outward investment by UK MNCs constitutes nearly 12% of the
    total stock of investments by MNCs, second only to US MNCs. Moreover, inward
    investment into the UK amounted to just over 9% of the total, again surpassed
    only by the US.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In a globalised market, new forms of work organisation and workplace
    partnership are increasingly becoming a prerequisite for competitiveness and
    employment in high-wage economies. In Europe, there has been a significant
    increase since the beginning of the 1990s in a variety of new forms of work
    organisation with strong direct participation of employees. In four out of
    five workplaces in Europe management either encourages employees to make
    their views known on work-related matters - via "continuous improvement"
    programmes, for example - or gives employees increased responsibility to
    organise their jobs - via semi-autonomous work-groups, for instance. However,
    Europe still lags significantly behind its main competitors in the USA and
    Japan in terms of the scope and integration of different organisational
    change measures.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The statutory rules on temporary employment contracts have been controversial
    ever since they were first instituted with the Act on Security of Employment
    1974. The principal rule of the Act was that employment contracts were valid
    for an indefinite period. Temporary contracts were permitted only in cases
    specified in the Act, namely:

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    An agreement was signed on 28 October 1997 by trade unions and the Italian
    toy-manufacturing multinational, Artsana, which provides for the respect of
    ILO conventions in the group's production plants abroad.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In Austria, there is a legal entitlement to early retirement when a person:
    has drawn unemployment benefits for at least 12 of the last 15 months; is
    aged over 55 years (women) or over 60 (men); and has accumulated at least 180
    months (15 years) of contributions to the pension insurance scheme. At least
    120 of the 180 months of contributions have to derive from actual employment,
    while the remainder may derive from periods of child-rearing of up to 48
    months per child. The pension entitlement lapses if new employment is entered

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    On Friday 17 October 1997, it became public knowledge that four of the trade
    unions affiliated to the Federation of Norwegian Professional Associations
    (Akademikernes Fellesorganiasjon, AF) were in the process of establishing a
    new confederation for academically qualified workers, together with the
    Norwegian Medical Association (Den norske lægeforening), previously
    affiliated to AF (NO9710131N [1]). The four organisations concerned are
    Norwegian Society of Chartered Engineers (Norske Sivilingeniørers Forening),
    The Norwegian Federation of Business Economists (Norske Siviløkonomers
    Forening), The Norwegian Dental Association (Den norske Tannlægeforening)
    and the Association of Norwegian Lawyers (Norges Juristforbund). Since this
    date, three additional AF-affiliated unions have expressed a wish to transfer
    to the new confederation. These are the unions organising architects,
    veterinarians and psychologists.



  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications