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  • Article
    27 november 1997

    In October 1997, the UGT and CC.OO union confederations began an awareness
    and action-oriented campaign in protest against the increase in the number of
    industrial accidents in Spain. The unions demand immediate compliance by
    organisations with current legislation on health and safety at work.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    According to the Paperworkers' Union (Paperiliitto), the agreement reached by
    the central social partners on 17 November on the creation of "buffer funds"
    to protect Finland against cyclical economic changes within EU Economic and
    Monetary Union (EMU) is insufficient. Under the agreement (FI9711138F [1]), a
    total sum of up to FIM 7 billion will be collected in two buffer funds
    created in the occupational pension scheme and the unemployment insurance
    system. During periods of economic prosperity, employers and employees will
    pay higher contributions to the schemes than necessary, allowing rises in
    these contributions to be controlled during times of recession by using the
    buffer fund to meet benefit and pension costs.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-reach-agreement-on-emu-buffer-funds

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    According to a recent study by the Institute for Economics and Social Science
    (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI), about 90% of all
    German employees covered by a collective agreement receive a collectively
    agreed Christmas bonus (Weihnachtsgeld). However, there are large differences
    in the amount of Christmas bonus in the various sectors, with sums varying
    between 100% of one month's pay in banking and a flat-rate payment of a few
    hundred DEM in sectors like agriculture - the table below provides more
    detail by sector.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    By a majority of four to three, the Danish Supreme Court ruled on 17
    September 1997 that a trade union which already has bargaining rights in the
    public sector should also have bargaining rights in local pay negotiations on
    behalf of those public sector employees who are members of employee
    organisations which have not been granted the right of negotiation.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    When the new Labour Government came to power in May 1997, it was quick to
    highlight its intention to implement a National Minimum Wage (NMW)
    (UK9704125F [1]). Within 90 days of being in government, Labour had appointed
    a Low Pay Commission (LPC) to advise on the introduction and operation of the
    NMW (UK9708158N [2]), and was hard at work laying the foundations for a bill
    for its implementation. But by September 1997, when the LPC heard its first
    verbal evidence from the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and the
    Trades Union Congress (TUC) it was becoming very clear that it was unlikely
    that an NMW would be established for some time. An initial recommendation is
    still expected by May 1988 but it seems that, since detailed legislation
    would be needed, a national legally-enforceable minimum wage will not come
    into force until spring 1999 at the earliest. Below we take stock of the
    debate so far and assess the likely important developments to come.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-labour-market/the-industrial-relations-consequences-of-the-new-labour-government
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/national-minimum-wage-update

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    On 20 and 21 November 1997, European heads of state and government met in
    Luxembourg for the much anticipated Employment Summit [1]- the first ever
    such European Council meeting dedicated to the issue of how to address the
    problem of persistent unemployment in the European Union. The main decisions
    reached by the summit were as follows:

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/elm/summit/en/home.htm

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The effects of a lorry drivers strike in November 1997 extended beyond
    France. The dispute quickly took on a European dimension, provoking reaction
    from many countries and warnings from the European Commission. Over and above
    the purely national causes, and in particular poor industrial relations, the
    strike has raised many questions about free competition within the European
    market.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    Both state social security and occupational social security schemes in Sweden
    are based on the assumption that adults of both sexes earn their own living.
    Therefore every worker has his or her own rights, irrespective of civil
    status or family situation. Formally, the regulations make no distinction
    between men and women. It is nevertheless a fact that women on average have
    less money at their disposal when they are ill, when they become pensioners
    etc. One apparent explanation is that that their earnings, to which their
    benefits are related, are lower than men's average earnings. Their lifetime
    incomes also tend to be smaller than men's, as more women work part-time at
    least during some periods of their life.

  • Article
    27 november 1997

    The Government and the social partners have agreed to make exceptions from
    Austria's ban on women's night work, with the result that from 1 January 1998
    collective agreements may permit women to be employed between 22.00 and
    06.00. The deal still needs to be ratified by Parliament.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications