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  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    It is common practice in Norway for industry-level collective agreements to
    stipulate the period during the day within which the standard working week of
    37.5 hours may be worked - ie the earliest possible starting time and the
    latest possible finishing time. Normally this period is set at between 06.00
    and 17.00. If working hours fall outside this period, additional payments are
    due in compensation.

  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    While France's CNPF employers' confederation has been vociferously opposing
    the law - adopted in May 1998 - implementing the 35-hour working week in
    2000, large companies have been negotiating agreements trading off "working
    time" for "flexibility". These agreements will be implemented prior to the
    legislation coming into force, in return for substantial benefits for the
    employers. Eurocopter France is a "pioneer" in the metalworking industry.
    Could the agreement it signed with four unions on 31 March 1998 set a

  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    The meeting of the Labour and Social Affairs Council of Ministers held under
    the UK Presidency on 3-4 June 1998 in Luxembourg was primarily dedicated to
    the National Action Plans [1] (NAP s) for employment produced by the Member
    States in response to the 1998 Employment Guidelines [2] (EU9805107N [3]).
    The Council held two consecutive debates on the NAPs, the first on 3 June
    involving only the Ministers of Labour and Social Affairs, and the second at
    a joint session on 4 June 1998 with the Education Council of Ministers. In
    the course of the debate, Ministers were invited to discuss their NAPs in
    relation to the four "pillars" of employability, entrepreneurship,
    adaptability and equal opportunities. There was a broad consensus that basic
    educational provision needs to be improved to meet the needs of labour
    markets. Efforts are to be focused on those who have left school without any
    marketable qualifications, and a greater emphasis is to be placed on lifelong
    learning. Many delegations emphasised the importance of involving the social
    partners in labour market policy. "Mainstreaming" was approved as the most
    effective approach to achieving greater equality of opportunity. These
    discussions were held in preparation for the Cardiff European Council meeting
    later in the month, where the NAPs were to be assessed.


  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    Adopted in June 1996, the EU Directive on parental leave (96/34/EC [1]) was
    the first to emerge from the procedure created by the social policy Protocol
    and Agreement [2] annexed to the Maastricht Treaty, whereby the
    European-level social partners may directly negotiate agreements which can
    then be implemented by the EU Council of Ministers (TN9801201S [3]). The
    Directive left many specific issues for each Member State to decide on when
    implementing national transposition legislation (by 3 June 1998). The Irish
    Government's response, the Parental Leave Bill 1998 was published in early
    June and will come into effect by 3 December. The key points are as follows.


  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    Following one year of work, the first stage of Greece's social dialogue
    process on the issue of social security concluded at the end of May 1998. We
    examine the conclusions drawn so far and present a brief evaluation of these
    findings by the General Confederation of Greek Labour (GSEE).

  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    Mediation proposals that were put forward during the early hours of 28 May
    were recommended for acceptance by the Norwegian Confederation of Trade
    Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) cartels in the state and local
    government sector (NO9806170F [1]). Within the Norwegian Confederation of
    Vocational Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund, YS), the cartel for
    the state sector also recommended the proposal; however, the local government
    sector cartel was split and two unions, for auxiliary nurses and marine
    engineers, took strike action. In the Federation of Norwegian Professional
    Associations (Akademikernes Fellesorganisasjon, AF), cartels in both the
    state and local government sectors took strike action. Mediation attempts in
    a third bargaining area, the municipality of Oslo, were delayed, but very
    soon it became apparent that the AF cartel was split, with nurses and two
    other health service unions still continuing with strike action. The other
    parties to the dispute recommended the proposal.


  • Article
    27 juni 1998

    A framework bill on fighting all forms of social exclusion - which includes
    provisions on job creation - was passed by France's National Assembly in May
    1998, with Senate approval planned for July. This article outlines the main
    changes to the draft legislation since it was passed at cabinet level in
    March 1998.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications