Mediation proposals that were put forward during the early hours of 28 May
were recommended for acceptance by the Norwegian Confederation of Trade
Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) cartels in the state and local
government sector (NO9806170F ). Within the Norwegian Confederation of
Vocational Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund, YS), the cartel for
the state sector also recommended the proposal; however, the local government
sector cartel was split and two unions, for auxiliary nurses and marine
engineers, took strike action. In the Federation of Norwegian Professional
Associations (Akademikernes Fellesorganisasjon, AF), cartels in both the
state and local government sectors took strike action. Mediation attempts in
a third bargaining area, the municipality of Oslo, were delayed, but very
soon it became apparent that the AF cartel was split, with nurses and two
other health service unions still continuing with strike action. The other
parties to the dispute recommended the proposal.
A framework bill on fighting all forms of social exclusion - which includes
provisions on job creation - was passed by France's National Assembly in May
1998, with Senate approval planned for July. This article outlines the main
changes to the draft legislation since it was passed at cabinet level in
A threatened nationwide strike by health board and local authority
craftworkers, set for 22 June 1998, was averted when nine trade unions -
representing the 4,500 workers - recommended that their members accept an IEP
26.06 a week pay "relativity" increase.
Greece's upcoming integration in EU Economic and Monetary Union has made
timely the question of a radical reorganisation of the banking sector. All
sides recognise the need for such reorganisation, but disagree on the
direction, type and content of the necessary reforms. This issue has been
highlighted in May-June 1998 by the controversy surrounding the sell-off of
In May 1998, the UGT and CC.OO trade union confederations published a "crash
plan on industrial accidents". This proposal will be debated by the National
Commission on Health and Safety at Work, which will draw up a plan aimed at
reducing the high industrial accident rate in Spain.
Negotiations over the renewal of Italy's public administration national
collective agreements are underway in mid-1998. The talks are the first
occasion on which new regulations on trade union representativeness in the
sector have been applied. The rules have helped considerably in simplifying
the composition of worker representation at the negotiating table. This
article reviews the selective effects of the new rules, using a new source of
On 22 May 1997, the German Federal Government, the German Trade Union
Federation (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB), the German Salaried Employees'
Union (Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft, DAG), the Confederation of German
Employers' Associations (Bundesvereinigung der Deutschen
Arbeitgeberverbände, BDA), the Confederation of German Industries
(Bundesvereinigung der deutschen Industrie, BDI), the German Association of
Chambers of Commerce (Deutscher Industrie- und Handelstag, DIHT), the Central
Association of German Crafts (Zentralverband des deutschen Handwerks, ZDH)
and the Associations of the Credit Institutions (Kreditgewerbe) succeeded in
forging a regional "Employment Alliance" entitled the /Joint initiative for
more jobs in eastern Germany/ (Gemeinsame Initiative für mehr Arbeitsplätze
in Ostdeutschland) (DE9706117F ). Its primary objectives were to: speed up
the transformation process of the eastern German economy; boost growth;
reduce unit labour costs; stabilise employment in 1997 at the level of 1996;
and create 100,000 new jobs in each of the following years.
The banking sector in Belgium is going through a period of serious turbulence
and structural change in the late 1990s, to which several factors have
contributed. First, banks are positioning themselves in the increasingly
internationalised market for financial services. Second, the further
financial integration of the European Union's monetary market has now been
put on track and is pressurising banks to adopt proactive policies. Third,
the increasingly integrated nature of financial services causes banks to
integrate through cooperative networks, which can provide a complete range of
services to potential customers.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
As economies emerge from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, labour shortages are becoming increasingly evident. These include shortages exacerbated by the crisis in some sectors and professions where they had been endemic for some time. This report will look at measures implemented at national level to tackle labour shortages in the health, care and information and communications technology sectors, as well as those arising from the twin digital and green transitions.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.