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  • Article
    27 april 1998

    In 1992, the Swedish Employers' Confederation (Svenska
    Arbetsgivareföreningen, SAF) terminated the collective agreement on the work
    environment with the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen,
    LO) and the Federation of Salaried Employees in Industry and Services
    (Privattjänstemannakartellen, PTK), which had governed the organisation of
    occupational healthcare in the whole private sector. Shortly after, the then
    Liberal-Centre-Conservative Government proposed legislation providing that
    the state subsidies, which were granted for occupational healthcare services
    fulfilling detailed criteria as regards organisation and staffing, should be
    abolished. According to the Government, the state should not prescribe how
    occupational healthcare should be organised, as long as it manages to fulfil
    its objectives. Parliament adopted the bill although the Social Democratic
    Party, at that time in opposition, and the Left Party voted against it. Thus,
    since January 1993 occupational healthcare has worked under market
    conditions.

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    France's Economic and Social Council (Conseil Economique et Social, CES), a
    kind of consultative parliament, is comprised of representatives of
    employers' organisations, trade union organisations deemed representative at
    national level, representatives of various social groups and leading figures
    qualified in economic and social matters. Its main function is to provide
    information to government decision-makers, and furthermore to fuel the public
    debate, by formulating opinions. It may either intervene on an issue of its
    own accord or be commissioned by the government to act.

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    Corporate Germany is changing. Pressures of low-cost competition from abroad
    and high costs in Germany, boosted by the European Single Market and the
    preparations for EU Economic and Monetary Union, are forcing companies to
    restructure. Mergers and acquisitions are one means of corporate change. The
    consultants M&A International GmBH report that in 1997 some 1,900 companies
    saw a change of majority stakeholder, a 7.2% increase on 1996. In only 933
    cases was the buyer a German company, implying that Germany is an important
    target of cross-border acquisitions.

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    On 27 March, the Spanish Government approved two decrees on training
    contracts (contratos de formación) and on "reduced part-time" contracts
    (contratos a tiempo parcial reducido). These decrees aim to increase the
    level of social protection guaranteed in these kinds of employment contract.
    From now on, workers with training contracts will be entitled to full social
    benefits for temporary incapacity. Moreover, workers with reduced part-time
    contracts (that is, those covering work for less than 12 hours a week or 48
    hours a month) will be entitled to all benefits (pensions, unemployment
    benefit and temporary incapacity benefit). The Government has thus fulfilled
    the commitment that it made to the social partners after the "April
    agreements" - on employment stability, collective bargaining and filling the
    gaps in regulation - were concluded in 1997, although almost one year later
    (ES9706211F [1]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions-law-and-regulation/the-1997-labour-reform-in-spain-the-april-agreements

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    Law No. 21/96, dated 23 July 1996 - the "40-hour week law" - provided that
    from December 1996 weekly working hours in Portugal should be shortened by
    two hours towards the limit of 40 hours, and that no enterprise could exceed
    the 40-hour limit - without loss of pay for workers - by December 1997
    (PT9712154F [1]). The law prompted many conflicts and controversies in 1997,
    particularly over its application in the textiles, shoe manufacturing, and
    hotel sectors. In textiles, sector-level collective bargaining - in which the
    social partners had some difficulty coming to an understanding on issues
    involving both the reduction of the working week and the organisation of
    working time - resulted eventually in an agreement [2], published in the
    /Boletim do Trabalho e Emprego/ on 8 April 1998. The settlement contains some
    innovative and unexpected features, such as the following:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations/the-40-hour-working-week-finally-in-force-in-portugal
    [2] http://www.min-qemp.pt/bte/s1/98/13/bte_13b.html#CCT entre a Assoc. Portuguesa de Têxteis e Vestuário e outras e a FESETE - Feder. dos Sind. dos Trabalhadores Têxteis, Lanifícios, Vestuário, Calçado e Peles de Portugal e outros - Alteração salarial e outra

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    Preceding the 1998 industry-level wage negotiations within the private sector
    (NO9803157N [1]), the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
    (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) and the Norwegian Confederation of Business
    and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) bargained over more
    general issues. The most central topic during these negotiations was the
    question of further and continuing education, and the parties agreed to an
    action plan for competence development which is to be the basis for their
    efforts to bring about a reform in this area (NO9710127F [2]). The parties
    informed Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik of the main issues in the
    negotiations, and the Government was asked how it could contribute. The Prime
    Minister's reply came by letter on 27 March 1998 and it was elaborated on in
    a meeting on 31 March 1998.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industry-level-negotiations-commence
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/public-committee-recommends-a-moderate-further-education-and-training-reform

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    A new agreement on wages and working conditions for 180,000 blue-collar
    workers in the Swedish retail trade was signed on 20 March 1998. For the
    first time, the settlement is a three-party agreement between the Commercial
    Employees Union, (Handelsanställdas förbund, Handels) and the two
    employers' organisations, the Swedish Federation of Trade, Commerce and
    Service (Svensk Handel och Tjänsteföretagen) and the Cooperative Employers'
    Association (Kooperationens förhandlingsorganisation, KFO).

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The National Federation of White-Collar Workers (Centrale Nationale des
    Employés, CNE), affiliated to the Confederation of Christian Trade Unions
    (Confédération des Syndicats Chrétiens/Algemeen Christelijk Vakverbond,
    CSC/ACV), is a French-speaking trade union with 127,000 members comprising
    managerial and professional staff and administrative and technical
    white-collar workers from the industrial and financial private sectors,
    commerce and the non-profit sector in Brussels and Wallonia. It also includes
    unemployed people, people on early retirement and pensioners. Its Flemish
    equivalent, the Landelijke Bedienden Central (LBC) has 240,000 members.

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    The bill on the reduction of the statutory working week from 39 to 35 hours
    (FR9803197N [1]) was passed at second reading stage by the National Assembly
    on 31 March 1998. After its second reading in the Senate (upper house) and a
    meeting of the cross-party joint committee, the bill should become law in
    about the middle of May.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/35-hour-week-law-enters-the-home-straight

  • Article
    27 april 1998

    On 16 April 1998, the construction workers' union, IG Bau-Agrar-Umwelt, and
    the construction industry employers' association, Hauptverband der deutschen
    Bauindustrie (HDB), concluded a new collective agreement for the 830,000
    employees in the western German construction industry.

Series

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications