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  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    Personnel leasing/secondment (personaluthyrning) is the Swedish term for the
    situation whereby persons under an employment contract with one firm are
    leased to work in another firm. It covers arrangements known variously as
    hiring-out of labour or temporary agency work in other countries. The
    practice was deregulated in Sweden in 1991. In 1993, the
    conservative-liberal-centre Government of the day repealed the requirement
    that such firms had to have a licence in order to operate.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    STTK, Finland's white-collar workers' trade union confederation, proposed in
    May 1998 that a "Finnish model" for reducing working time should be created
    before 2000. Other union organisations have greeted this idea with

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    A 1997 Act establishing the equality of women and men with respect to night
    work came into force in Belgium in April 1998. Trade unions do not approve of
    this law on the grounds that it removes the power of decision over permitting
    night work from sectoral joint committees, and abolishes the voluntary nature
    of night work. However, in the name of promoting equal opportunities, a
    further step has now been taken towards "normalising" a practice that had
    been meant to remain exceptional under Belgian law.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    The Tanaiste (Deputy Prime Minister), unveiled Ireland's National Action Plan
    [1] on employment on 20 April 1998. All the EU Member States have drawn up
    such National Action Plans (NAP s) in line with the Employment Guidelines [2]
    which arose from the special Employment Summit [3] in Luxembourg in November
    1997 (EU9711168F [4]). The Guidelines set out a a framework for national
    action under the four "pillars" of employability, adaptability,
    entrepreneurship and equal opportunities. The NAPs were to be considered at
    the Cardiff European Council meeting in June 1998.


  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In March 1998, the metalworking employers' organisation, CONFEMETAL, and the
    metalworking federations of the UGT, CC.OO and CIGA trade unions signed an
    /Agreement on the structure of collective bargaining in the metalworking
    industry/, aimed at rationalising bargaining in the sector. This is the first
    agreement of this type to be signed following 1997's intersectoral agreement
    on collective bargaining.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In a speech delivered to the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) in April
    1998, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, cited latest figures
    showing that the UK has a "productivity gap" of 20%-30% with France and
    Germany and of 40% with the USA. Although there are British "success stories"
    (such as chemicals and paper/printing) and although the productivity gap has
    been steadily reduced, it still remains significant and the productivity of
    UK manufacturing trails behind that achieved elsewhere, almost regardless of
    sector. The Chancellor argued that "it is time to develop a sense of national
    purpose, to agree a long-term direction for Britain." He went on to say that
    the Government promises to do everything it can to create the conditions in
    which business can succeed, including major structural reforms of the UK
    product, capital and labour markets. In terms of the labour market, the
    Government's reform would include not just employment policy, but also
    welfare, education, taxation and social security policy.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    May 1998 saw industrial action on France's railways, as workers demanded job
    creation and pay increases, and called for more investment and changes to the
    running of the SNCF network.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In April 1991, German employers stated their support for European
    integration, the single market, and a reasonable social dimension. Following
    the June 1997 Amsterdam summit and the related Treaty changes (EU9707135F
    [1]) as well as in face of the coming Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the
    Confederation of German Employers' Associations (Bundesvereinigung der
    Deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände, BDA) published its current positions
    regarding European social policy in spring 1998 ("EuropäischeSozialpolitik -
    Die Perspektive der Arbeitgeber, BDA, Cologne (1998)). This feature
    summarises the BDA statement.


  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    The revised national Budget for 1998 was made public by the Norwegian
    Government on 15 May 1998. The Government is concerned about the present
    overheating in the economy, and proposes that employers must set aside 2% of
    paybill as well as paying a larger share of the cost of sick pay benefits.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    On 17 April 1998, the blue-collar Municipal Workers' Union (Svenska
    Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal) signed collective agreements with the
    Association of Local Authorities (Kommunförbundet), the Federation of County
    Councils (Landstingsförbundet) and the Association of the Parishes within
    the Church of Sweden (Svenska Kyrkans Församlings- och Pastoratsförbund),
    regulating pay and working conditions for around 420,000 employees in county
    councils, municipalities and parishes. Average monthly pay will rise from SEK
    13,606 in 1998 to SEK 14,898 in 2000, or by 9.5% expressed as a percentage.


  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications

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