A performance-related pay agreement was finalised in April 1998 between Marks
& Spencer (M&S) and the Mandate trade union, which represents the majority of
"front-line" staff in the retail chain, and SIPTU, which represents catering,
security and warehouse employees. M&S operates in a non-union environment in
the UK, its home country, but not in Ireland, where it has some 1,000
On 8 April 1998, Margaret Beckett MP, President of the Board of Trade,
launched a public consultation exercise on draft regulations to implement the
provisions of the EU working time Directive (plus the working time aspects of
the young workers Directive). Subject to any amendments the Government
considers necessary in the light of the consultation exercise, the
regulations will be laid before Parliament before the summer recess and are
expected to take effect from 1 October 1998.
The Greek Government's announcement in May 1998 that it intends to sell
Ionian Bank as a first step in a process of privatisations has brought to a
head a confrontation between the Government and the trade union movement as a
whole, and the bank employees' unions in particular.
The Spanish Ministry of Labour reached a preliminary agreement in May 1998
with the State Confederation of Savings Banks for these institutions to grant
low-interest loans to companies that create employment.
Introduced as a consequence of the law on the modernisation of the social
security and social services system (dated 26 July 1996), the SIS card or
social identity card will come into operation in October 1998. It is an
important step in the process of combining different electronic data sets
into a linked web of information on the social situation of all citizens. It
is obvious that this includes an important number of issues related to the
employment situation of the people included in the system.
From 7-9 May 1998 the German metalworkers' trade union, IG Metall, held a
conference with about 460 participants (mainly union workplace
representatives and local trade union officers) to discuss the union's
positions on future working time policy. In the run-up to the conference, the
board of IG Metall presented a document on an /IG Metall initiative on
employment and working time policy/ (Beschäftigungs- und
arbeitszeitpolitische Initiative der IG Metall) which contains various
proposals for short- and medium-term strategy on further working time
The insurance industry employs about 30,000 white-collar employees. Of these
about half are office staff and half are sales representatives. The Union of
Salaried Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) and the Money,
Credit and Insurance Section of the Austrian Chamber of Commerce
(Österreichische Wirtschaftskammer, WKÖ) are getting close to completing
another stage in their quest to revise the industry's framework agreement
(Rahmenkollektivvertrag). This time, it is office staff pay scales that are
In May 1998, a legislative decree was signed regulating the creation of
private employment services in Italy. Private organisations can now operate
alongside the public services, which previously had a monopoly.
Trade unions and management at theAn Post state-owned postal company have
begun work on a complex "partnership" process, which is being kept separate
from day-to-day industrial relations issues. The partnership model they hope
to construct will be based on principles enshrined in the current three-year
economic and social agreement, /Partnership 2000/ (IE9702103F ). The
National Centre for Partnership, established in mid-1997 (IE9706202N ),
has been given a key facilitative role in the new process, which is being
overseen by a top-level joint management/union group. The Communications
Workers Union (CWU) is the main union at An Post, which employs up to 8,000
TheTrades Union Congress (TUC) held its annual black workers conference at
the City Hall, Cardiff on 24-26 April 1998, on the theme of /Recruiting for
race equality/. Altogether, 250 delegates from most of the TUC's 75
affiliated trade unions, along with many observers, attended the conference.
Each union is entitled to send one delegate to the conference for every 5,000
members, regardless of race or gender, with a maximum of 16 delegates per
union. Each union is also entitled to submit two motions and every delegate
is entitled to vote on all motions. The conference arrangements are the
responsibility of the TUC Race Relations Committee (RRC), which consists of
members of the general council and 18 representatives elected at the previous
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
This report analyses the working lives of workers in Europe in 2021, when the continent was still in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines working conditions during that period and the association between job quality and work outcomes such as health and well-being, work–life balance, and financial security. The report also considers how the shifts in working life during the pandemic are likely to affect work in the future.