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  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    The long-announced founding of a new trade union outside the Austrian Trade
    Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) has now occurred
    (AT9802166N [1]). On 1 May 1998, in a small town outside Vienna, the Austrian
    Free Trade Union (Freie Gewerkschaft Österreichs, FGÖ) was officially
    founded and a 34-year-old police officer was elected as its chair. The
    union's main promoter over the past two years chose not to stand for election
    but to retain instead his seat in Parliament. The new union is closely
    related to the right-wing populism of the Austrian Freedom Party
    (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) whose main politicians spoke at the
    founding ceremonies.


  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    After the European Council had adopted its Guidelines for Member States'
    Employment Policies for 1998 [1] in December 1997 (EU9712174N [2]), all
    Member States were committed to incorporate these guidelines into National
    Action Plans (NAP s) on employment and to submit these plans for examination
    by the European Council meeting in Cardiff in June 1998. On 22 April 1998,
    the German Federal Government presented its National Action Plan [3] for 1998
    which contains two parts:


  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In April 1998, the Ministry of Labour issued a communication clarifying the
    use of job-sharing contracts, which are a new development in Italy.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    On 24 April 1998, the members of the organisations affiliated to the Danish
    Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO) and the
    Danish Employers' Confederation (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA) were
    balloted on a joint mediation proposal for the bargaining round in the entire
    DA/LO area, drawn up by the Public Conciliator and accepted by DA and LO on
    30 March (DK9804163F [1]). The proposal - bringing together and renewing
    approximately 600 collective agreements - followed a settlement in the key
    industry sector, which was reached despite concerns that negotiations would
    fail and a major dispute would break out (DK9803158F [2]). Once the industry
    deal was struck, the ballot on the overall joint mediation proposal - which
    was recommended by the unions - was widely regarded as a formality; it had
    been 42 years since a joint mediation proposal was last rejected and 13 years
    since Denmark last experienced a major conflict. However, a clear majority of
    those voting in the ballot (265,000 out of 565,000, or 56%) rejected the
    mediation proposal (DK9804166N [3]). At 47%, the participation rate among
    union members in the ballot was the highest for 25 years. It seemed that the
    workers' message to LO was clear: renegotiate the mediation proposal and
    introduce more days of leave, thus taking the first steps towards a sixth
    week of paid holiday (the Holidays Act gives all workers the right to five
    weeks of paid holiday per year).


  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    A number of recent reports have highlighted the persistence of horizontal and
    vertical job segregation along gender lines. Men continue to occupy the
    majority of managerial positions while women can largely be found in
    clerical, caring and menial industrial jobs. Women are also far more likely
    to occupy precarious employment situations such as part-time, temporary and
    fixed-term work. All these factors contribute to a persistent pay gap between
    the sexes (EU9801176F [1])


  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    On 6 May 1998, it was announced that Lew Adams, who had been general
    secretary of the train drivers' trade union, the Associated Society of
    Locomotive Engineers and Firemen (ASLEF), for the previous four years, had
    failed to retain the post in an election. In a first ballot, Mr Adams had
    topped the list of five candidates but failed to achieve the necessary 50% of
    votes (obtaining only 45.1%), thus necessitating a second ballot involving
    himself and the second-placed candidate, Dave Rix, a local union official
    from Leeds who had polled 23.9%. In the second ballot, Mr Adams polled 3,357
    votes, compared with 4,558 for Mr Rix, who was thus elected general
    secretary. More than 14,300 ballot papers had been sent out, and around half
    of ASLEF's members actually voted.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    Sparked by the proposed sell-off of Ionian Bank, trade unions escalated
    industrial action in the Greek banking sector in May 1998, expanding both
    their programme for action and their framework of demands.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In early 1998, trade unions have asked to participate in the drafting and
    negotiation of the industrial plan for Babcock & Wilcox Española, a
    publicly-owned Spanish company which is to be taken over by the Norwegian
    multinational Kværner.

  • Article
    27 maj 1998

    In the first half of May 1998, collective agreements for wage earners
    (Arbeiter) in hotels and restaurants were concluded in three provinces and
    for salary earners (Angestellte) on a national basis. Negotiations for wage
    earners in tourism are being conducted on a province-by-province basis
    because, for the second year in succession, national talks failed (AT9802167N


  • CAR
    27 maj 1998

    /Flexibility of working time is undoubtedly a topical theme in European
    industrial relations at present. It is in the spotlight of EU social and
    employment policy and is becoming an increasingly important issue for
    collective bargaining in most countries. The emergence and implementation of
    working time flexibility are explored in this EIRO comparative study./


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications