In March 1998, the metalworking employers' organisation, CONFEMETAL, and the
metalworking federations of the UGT, CC.OO and CIGA trade unions signed an
/Agreement on the structure of collective bargaining in the metalworking
industry/, aimed at rationalising bargaining in the sector. This is the first
agreement of this type to be signed following 1997's intersectoral agreement
on collective bargaining.
In a speech delivered to the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) in April
1998, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, cited latest figures
showing that the UK has a "productivity gap" of 20%-30% with France and
Germany and of 40% with the USA. Although there are British "success stories"
(such as chemicals and paper/printing) and although the productivity gap has
been steadily reduced, it still remains significant and the productivity of
UK manufacturing trails behind that achieved elsewhere, almost regardless of
sector. The Chancellor argued that "it is time to develop a sense of national
purpose, to agree a long-term direction for Britain." He went on to say that
the Government promises to do everything it can to create the conditions in
which business can succeed, including major structural reforms of the UK
product, capital and labour markets. In terms of the labour market, the
Government's reform would include not just employment policy, but also
welfare, education, taxation and social security policy.
The revised national Budget for 1998 was made public by the Norwegian
Government on 15 May 1998. The Government is concerned about the present
overheating in the economy, and proposes that employers must set aside 2% of
paybill as well as paying a larger share of the cost of sick pay benefits.
In April 1991, German employers stated their support for European
integration, the single market, and a reasonable social dimension. Following
the June 1997 Amsterdam summit and the related Treaty changes (EU9707135F
) as well as in face of the coming Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the
Confederation of German Employers' Associations (Bundesvereinigung der
Deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände, BDA) published its current positions
regarding European social policy in spring 1998 ("EuropäischeSozialpolitik -
Die Perspektive der Arbeitgeber, BDA, Cologne (1998)). This feature
summarises the BDA statement.
On 17 April 1998, the blue-collar Municipal Workers' Union (Svenska
Kommunalarbetareförbundet, Kommunal) signed collective agreements with the
Association of Local Authorities (Kommunförbundet), the Federation of County
Councils (Landstingsförbundet) and the Association of the Parishes within
the Church of Sweden (Svenska Kyrkans Församlings- och Pastoratsförbund),
regulating pay and working conditions for around 420,000 employees in county
councils, municipalities and parishes. Average monthly pay will rise from SEK
13,606 in 1998 to SEK 14,898 in 2000, or by 9.5% expressed as a percentage.
Finland's mainly state-owned Leonia finance group gave notice in spring 1998
of massive reorganisation involving large-scale redundancies. Employees are
vigorously opposed to the dismissals, which are now under negotiation in the
works council. If a solution cannot be reached, the dispute will escalate
into a widespread boycott.
Elections in Belgian companies for works councils and workplace health and
safety committees are likely to be postponed from 1999 until 2000, at the
employers' request. The elections involve half the workers in the private
Findings from a recent national workplace survey of workplace change in
Ireland stand in stark contrast to popular claims of the widespread diffusion
of new working practices and initiatives which facilitate employee
"empowerment". The findings suggest that new work structures are very much a
minority practice in Irish companies. In comparison to other European
countries, Ireland lags some way behind and, as a consequence, many Irish
companies are not reaping the economic benefits which accompany the
introduction of these new initiatives.
In May 1998, the regional Government and the main Catalan employers'
organisations and trade unions signed the /Pact for employment in Catalonia./
This is the first employment pact at regional level that has been signed
following the November 1997 EU Employment Summit, and the first of its kind
ever reached in Catalonia.
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
The report describes trends in social and economic discontent across the EU between 2002 and 2020, highlighting in particular the turbulent times brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The report explores the evolution of social cohesion and its impact on economic and social discontent. It assesses the relationship between social cohesion and discontent during the pandemic, allowing for a comparison of the situation as it stands in 2023. The focus of the report is on regions where social cohesion is low, where a contrast is drawn with regions where social cohesion is much higher.
This report analyses the working conditions and job quality of different types of self-employed workers. Drawing on data from the European Working Conditions Survey, it looks into policies in Member States aimed at addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with specific types of self-employment.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
The focus of this report is on the role that human capital plays in determining inequalities across the EU, as well as within Member States. Using Cedefop’s work in this area, the report provides a comparative analysis of national trends in education and lifelong learning, including differences between educational groups in terms of income, living conditions and health.
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.