Along with all the other EU Member States, Finland has drawn up a National
Action Plan (NAP) on employment in response to the EU Guidelines for Member
States' employment policies 1998 , following the Luxembourg"Employment
Summit" in November 1997 (EU9711168F ). The plans are to be submitted to
the Cardiff European Council in June 1998.
The major strike in Denmark's private sector in April-May 1998 (DK9805168F
) indirectly caused a dispute in Sweden. When the SAS airline tried to
reroute its flights scheduled for Copenhagen to Sweden, the Swedish Transport
Workers' Union (Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport) notified SAS
and the catering company Gate Gourmet on 1 May of its intention to impose a
blockade which was due to begin seven days later. Transport workers at
Arlanda airport refused to load and unload luggage and refuel the rerouted
aircraft before the blockade was due to take effect. Consequently, SAS had to
cancel several long-distance flights.
Following the special Employment Summit  in Luxembourg in November 1997
(EU9711168F ), EU Member States agreed a set of Employment Guidelines 
designed to provide a framework for national action under four main "pillars"
- employability, adaptability, entrepreneurship and equal opportunities. Each
Member State was to draw up a National Action Plan (NAP) for consideration at
the June 1998 European Council meeting in Cardiff. The French Action Plan for
Employment, 1998  (Plan français d'action pour l'emploi 1998) was adopted
by the Council of Ministers on 15 April 1998 and submitted to the European
Commission on the same day.
On 10 May 1998, employers and the trade unions in the Dutch healthcare sector
reached a new collective agreement. This was made possible after a debate in
the Second Chamber of the Dutch Parliament, in which the outgoing Minister of
Health offered employers a chance for renegotiation in the autumn if the
budget proves to be inadequate.
In May 1998, the Portuguese Government announced proposals for a new basic
law on social security, containing structural measures designed to strengthen
system and address its financial sustainability. The proposals incorporate
some recommendations arising from the dialogue between the Government and the
According to Sergio Cofferati, general secretary of Italy's Cgil trade union
confederation, EU Economic and Monetary Union may have major consequences for
industrial relations, as the importance of the supranational level is bound
to increase. For this reason, in May 1998 Mr Cofferati suggested the
introduction of European-level collective agreements, provoking a hostile
reaction from employers.
Long-running disputes in the governing bodies of the FEP brought the union
organisation to a standstill in March 1998 and have led to the formation of a
new confederation for white-collar workers in Luxembourg's private sector.
The Spanish government, in drawing up its National Action Plan for employment
in response to the EU employment guidelines, for submission to the June 1998
Cardiff summit, has given priority to active employment policies supported by
training and local activity. However, the trade unions have severely
criticised the Plan and are organising protests against it.
Attempts at mediation in bargaining over a new collective agreement in the
transport sector broke down in May 1998, and 5,700 workers had gone on strike
by 22 May. The strikes involve those covered by the collective agreements for
scheduled bus transport, long-distance freight transport by road, and bus
drivers employed by Norwegian Railways (NSB). The conflict will be stepped up
incrementally until 6 June 1998 unless a new agreement is reached.
STTK, Finland's white-collar workers' trade union confederation, proposed in
May 1998 that a "Finnish model" for reducing working time should be created
before 2000. Other union organisations have greeted this idea with
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
As part of a process to collect information on essential services, the European Commission (DG EMPL) requested Eurofound to provide input on certain aspects of existing and planned measures in the Member States to improve access to essential services, in reference to Principle 20 of the European Pillar of Social Rights. The scope of the exercise included energy services, public transport and digital communications, and the focus was on people at risk of poverty or social exclusion (in practice, people on low incomes in most cases).
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.
The financial services sector is pertinent for studying the impact of digitalisation, as the main ‘raw material’ of the sector is digitally stored and processed. Process automation in the sector is likely to lead to significant job losses over the next 10 years, as the high street bank presence declines and the online bank presence increasingly accounts for a higher share of overall activity. Such trends have already been identified in bank restructurings captured in Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the gas sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the gas sector in the EU Member States.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?