/It seems inevitable that increasing economic integration and competition
within Europe will have some influence on national collective bargaining. The
aim of this comparative study is to provide an assessment, as of summer 1999,
of the extent to which the processes and outcomes of bargaining in the 15
Member States of the EU, plus Norway, are developing a cross-border, European
dimension. The study outlines the diverse processes, both implicit and
explicit, which can be said to be leading towards a "Europeanisation" of
collective bargaining. Developments across the 16 countries concerned are
examined at intersectoral, sectoral and enterprise levels, with a special
focus on metalworking and financial services, and the views of the social
partners are summarised./
In mid-1999, Spain's current system of continuing training for workers in
employment had been operational for some six and a half years. Here, we
examine its development, focusing on its joint management by the social
partners and the impact that it has had on less qualified workers.
On 2 July 1999, the UK's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) published
draft Regulations  to implement the EU European Works Councils (s)
Directive  in the UK, together with a consultation document  seeking
views on the government's proposed approach. After further refinement, and
subject to approval by parliament, the Transnational Information and
Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999 will come into force on 15
December 1999 - the deadline set by the 1997 Directive  which reversed the
previous UK government's "opt-out" from the original EWCs Directive.
Communiqué is the newsletter of the Foundation It is published 10 times per year and provides up-to-date news and information on the Foundation's work and research. The March issue contains the following articles: Ageing; EMU and industrial relations; Financial participation; EUCO cooperation.
On 6 July 1999, leading representatives of the federal government, trade
unions and employers' associations (see the annex at the end of this record
for details of the participants) met officially, chaired by the Federal
Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder, for the third round of top-level talks within
the framework of the Alliance for Jobs, Training and Competitiveness 
(Bündnis für Arbeit, Ausbildung und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit). The Alliance
was established in December 1998 as a new permanent tripartite arrangement at
national level, including various working groups on specific topics as well
as regular top-level talks between the leading representatives of all three
parties (DE9812286N ).
On 14 July 1999, the Prime Minister (Taoiseach), Bertie Ahern, launched a new
joint training initiative from theIrish Business and Employers Confederation
(IBEC) and the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which was developed
with the assistance of the National Centre for Partnership (IE9706202N ) a
body established under the current three-year national programme, Partnership
2000  (P2000) (IE9702103F ). The initiative is seen as a practical
contribution by the social partners to the achievement of the aims of P2000
in relation to the development of enterprise-level partnership.
In two rulings issued on 30 June 1999, the Norwegian Supreme Court endorsed
the right of employees in some cases to avoid being transferred to a new
employer, when the enterprise is transferring support functions to another
employer (outsourcing). Both cases related to the outsourcing of defined task
areas with few employees, one concerning a switchboard operator and the other
three cleaners. The employees who brought the cases wanted to retain their
employment with the original employer. They claimed that employees have a
legal right to choose whether to work for the new employer or maintain
employment with the original employer.
The issue of the rehabilitation of workers who have become incapacitated has
been the subject of a number of special commissions in recent years, and on 3
June 1999 another commissioner - Gerhard Larsson, the former head of Samhall,
a governmental rehabilitation organisation - was asked to study and analyse
the situation. Since 1992, the main responsibility for the rehabilitation of
employees has been placed on employers, and several changes have been made to
the regulations since then. For example, the rules on the costs of
rehabilitation and sick leave have been altered, as has the system for
cooperation between employers and the local social insurance office and other
authorities. In August 1998, a government committee proposed a clarification
of employers' responsibilities (SE9810114F ).
On 1 July 1999, a reform of Spanish legislation on temporary employment
agencies was passed. Among other provisions, this gives temporary agency
workers the same pay as employees of the user companies in which they work,
and has brought severe criticism from the sector's employers' association.
The ICTU's two-yearly conference held in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999 reflected
the widespread positive mood in Ireland due to the country's enormous
economic growth of recent years. It is clear, however, that major challenges
lie ahead for the trade unions, not least regarding the negotiation of an
agreement to replace Partnership 2000  (P2000) (IE9702103F ), the
current national programme which runs from January 1997 to March 2000.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the accessibility of health, education and care services for all Europeans. This is also the case for children, who in several countries have seen their schools closed and replaced with remote learning. They have been affected, too, by the pandemic’s negative impact on their families’ access to healthcare and their mental health. Many families have also experienced rising housing insecurity. The Child Guarantee aims to ensure access to these resources for children in need.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.