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  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    It is expected that the fate of the Forges de Clabecq steelworks will be
    sealed on 15 June 1997. However, whatever the outcome of the recovery
    operation by the Swiss-Italian industrial concern, Duferco, something will
    have changed in this Belgian enterprise located some 15 miles from Brussels
    in the province of Brabant. Beyond the event in itself - the closure of a
    firm leading to the loss of 1,800 jobs - which has not itself been
    exceptional over the last few months in Belgium, it is the style of activity
    undertaken by the Forges de Clabecq union delegation [1] that has revealed a
    new union climate.


  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    A survey of the most important collective agreements signed in the
    Netherlands so far in 1999, published in June, finds moderate average pay
    increases of 2.7%. The number of agreements on training, flexible pension
    schemes and the accumulation time off has increased in recent years. While
    employers and, to a lesser extent, trade unions are in agreement on the
    issues to be addressed in negotiations during the coming year, both sides
    criticise aspects of the Netherlands' consultation and consensus-based system
    - the "polder model".

  • CAR
    27 juli 1999

    /It seems inevitable that increasing economic integration and competition
    within Europe will have some influence on national collective bargaining. The
    aim of this comparative study is to provide an assessment, as of summer 1999,
    of the extent to which the processes and outcomes of bargaining in the 15
    Member States of the EU, plus Norway, are developing a cross-border, European
    dimension. The study outlines the diverse processes, both implicit and
    explicit, which can be said to be leading towards a "Europeanisation" of
    collective bargaining. Developments across the 16 countries concerned are
    examined at intersectoral, sectoral and enterprise levels, with a special
    focus on metalworking and financial services, and the views of the social
    partners are summarised./

  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    The collective agreement for France's banking sector has to be renegotiated
    by 1 January 2000, following the decision in 1998 by the AFB employers'
    organisation to terminate the accord. In June 1999, AFB tabled a draft of a
    new agreement, which has been deemed unacceptable by all the trade unions

  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    In June 1999, the Institute of Labour of the Greek General Confederation of
    Labour (INE-GSEE) published a study examining the prevalent orthodox thinking
    in Greece that increases in real wages reduce profitability, investments,
    employment and competitiveness. The study claims that this belief is not
    borne out by the statistical data for Greece.

  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    On 20 July 1999, the national council of the Confederation of British
    Industry (CBI) adopted a policy statement [1] reaffirming that the CBI is "in
    favour in principle of UK entry into European Economic and Monetary Union
    once key conditions for success are in place". The CBI believes that UK
    membership of EMU"has the potential to deliver significant benefits to the UK
    economy", but that further progress is needed towards "sound fiscal
    conditions in all major euro-zone countries", together with a shift in labour
    market policies towards more flexibility. The new policy statement is the
    culmination of a three-month consultation process involving voting on CBI
    regional and national committees and a survey of wider membership opinion
    carried out by polling organisation MORI.


  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    On 14 July 1999, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled A
    concerted strategy for modernising social protection [1] (COM(99)347 final).
    The Communication emphasises the key role played by social protection systems
    in supporting public health and well-being and in redistributing wealth. It
    is argued that, without social security transfers, nearly 40% of EU
    households would be living in relative poverty (compared with the actual rate
    of 17%). Spending on social protection accounts for an average of 28.5% of


  • Article
    27 juli 1999

    The integrated police law adopted in December 1998, based on agreement
    between Belgium's main political parties, provides for the overhaul of the
    various law-and-order forces (the gendarmerie, criminal-investigation
    department and municipal police), establishing federal and local levels and
    defining a new unified statute for the entire force. Because of the
    importance of the issues at stake, the police reform has caused an
    unprecedented labour dispute during 1999 between police unions and the
    Interior Ministry, leading to a breakdown in negotiations and highlighting
    the complexity of police trade unionism in Belgium.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications