Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.Read less
In May 1999, France's Ministry for Employment and Solidarity published an
initial progress report on the 1998 law on the 35-hour working week, aimed at
fueling discussions on the second law on the issue, which is to be voted on
by the end of 1999. On 21 June, Martine Aubry, the Minister concerned,
publicly announced the principal outlines of the proposed second law. She
plans a one-year transition period between the law being passed and its
coming into effect, while her comments have triggered a debate on the
legitimacy of the agreements on working time signed by minority trade unions.
Worker representatives and the management of Michelin in Spain have used
collective bargaining to adapt prevailing legislation to their own
circumstances, by creating a contractual formula half way between the
full-time and the part-time employment contract. The result, agreed in June
1998, is a permanent contract that allows full-time workers to be switched to
part-time work in line with production requirements. The agreement stresses
the participation of worker representatives in this process. The agreement
permitted 400 new permanent contracts to be signed by June 1999.
Ireland's largest trade union, SIPTU, and the Danish-owned multinational
cleaning company, ISS, have concluded a formal "partnership" agreement,
believed to be the first of its kind within the industry, it was reported in
June 1999. The company has been in business for almost 100 years, starting as
a small security operation in Denmark, and is currently a major Europe-wide
company, with important operations in Asia and South America, and has over
100,000 employees worldwide. When ISS established its European Works Council
in 1995, it was one of the first such bodies in the services sector to
include representation from Ireland. ISS is the second-largest contract
cleaning company in Ireland but it has a very high rate of turnover among its
2,500 staff, which it is urgently seeking to address. The new agreement,
which is also aimed at staff retention, is likely to be examined by other
firms with high staff turnover problems.
A new Bill presented to parliament on 6 May 1999 provides a new definition of
"occupational healthcare" in the Swedish Work Environment Act
(arbetsmiljölagen, /SFS 1977:1160, 2b§/
). It states that the employer should be responsible for making arrangements
for all kinds of occupational healthcare required by the working conditions
at the specific workplace. By "occupational healthcare", the law means an
independent expert resource in the areas of the work environment and
rehabilitation. Occupational healthcare should be designed so as to prevent
health risks in workplaces and to outline the links between the work
environment, organisation, productivity and health. The new paragraph will
become operative from 1 January 2000.
On 24 May 1999, the Trades Union Congress (TUC) held a major conference to
promote "partnership" at the workplace and to showcase some of the more
innovative of recent, union-based partnership agreements. The event was
attended by some 400 managers, policymakers and trade union representatives.
Of particular significance was the participation in the conference of the
Prime Minister, the trade and industry secretary and the director-general of
the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), all of whom supported the spread
of partnership arrangements though they stopped short of endorsing every
specific aspect of the TUC's partnership agenda.
Italy is celebrating the Millennium with a year of "Great Jubilee"
celebrations during 2000. In June 1999 the social partners signed a "protocol
of intent" on a "social truce" for 2000. The text sets out the partners'
strategies, objectives and commitments for starting the new Millennium in a
climate of social peace.
Territorial Employment Pacts (TEP s) are an EU initiative aimed at
stabilising local and regional labour markets in selected European regions by
promoting consensus and cooperation between all relevant local actors. In
mid-1999, there are seven TEPs operational in six of Austria's nine
provinces. The agreement on an eighth pact is expected by September 1999. In
the two remaining provinces, Burgenland and Styria, TEPs are under
preparation. Burgenland, which stretches along the Hungarian border, is the
poorest province and has the highest unemployment rate, whilst Styria has the
highest rate of long-term unemployment outside Vienna. The first three TEPs
were initiated in the three westernmost provinces, all of which have
relatively low unemployment. However, all three experienced a surge of
long-term unemployment in 1997. The fourth, also initiated in 1997, covers
Vienna  where unemployment is above the national average. These four pacts
will all expire at the end of 1999 but will be renewed. The fifth pact, also
in Vienna, and the only one linked explicitly to Austria's National Action
Plan  (NAP) for employment implementing the EU Employment Guidelines 
(AT9901120F ), took effect in autumn 1998 and will run until the end of
2004. The shortest-term pact covers Upper Austria- it is limited to the
calendar year 1999 but will also be renewed. The TEP in Carinthia is
scheduled to run for four years from the beginning of 1999 to the end of
2002. The TEP for Lower Austria will run from the beginning of 2000 until the
end of 2004.
After three weeks of industrial action, which forced the closure of the major
national museums and historic sites, staff at France's Ministry for Culture
protesting at job insecurity called a halt to their strike in early June
1999, until the forthcoming budget negotiations. They accepted a protocol
agreement, which provides for a five-year plan to turn temporary jobs into
The management of Iveco-Pegaso, the Spanish vehicle manufacturer, will
convert temporary posts into permanent ones, but only on condition that the
workers' committee accepts an automatic dismissal clause for the workers on
the new contracts in the event of a fall in production. Over May-July 1999,
trade unions in the company organised a series of strikes in protest.
According to an Irish Business and Employers Confederation (IBEC) survey,
published on 22 June 1999, Irish companies are introducing a range of
"partnership"-type measures in cooperation with their employees (IE9811264N
). The survey was based in a sample of 400 enterprises - all with 50 or
more employees - and employing a total of 207,847 workers between them. The
vast majority are private sector companies but there is also an unspecified
number of commercial semi-state and non-commercial state organisations.
Unionised and non-unionised companies are both included, across all regions,
sectors and sizes.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Technological developments, new forms of employment and new ways of organising work are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects on working conditions. These changes are affecting the different economic sectors and occupations in different ways. This study uses data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey to illustrate the changes in working conditions that different sectors and occupations are experiencing and to compare job quality within them.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the human health sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
Industrial relations: Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Local and regional administration sectorForthcoming
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) report for 2020 looks at the specificities of large-scale transnational restructurings of companies operating in different EU Member States. It examines the factors affecting how companies make decisions regarding their international distribution of employment and how any conflicts arising are addressed or resolved. The research is based on over 1,000 large transnational restructurings recorded in the ERM events database.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
Recent technological developments as well as management tools and practices allow for the collection of more data, and new kinds of data, about workers. This enables the quantification of activities that may not previously have been measured or tracked in a given workplace and their (automatic) processing. As a consequence, the frontiers between workplace monitoring, quality control and worker surveillance may be blurring.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.