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  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    In discussing the future development of the labour market and industrial
    relations, the debate is usually littered with "buzzwords" such as new forms
    of work organisation, group-managed work, the quality and meaning of working
    life, greater interrelation between family life and working life,
    decentralisation of the collective bargaining system and flexibility. But
    what do these concepts of new forms of work organisation entail? What are the
    forms of flexibility which are being aimed at? What demands do employers make
    of employees and vice versa, and how are they to be met? And what role do
    trade unions and employers' organisations play in connection with new forms
    of work organisation?

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    In May 1999, an agreement on the reduction of working time, in line with the
    1998 legislation on the 35-hour week, was signed in France by the CFDT trade
    union and the management of the IKEA furniture retail group. The other unions
    concerned have not yet given their reactions to this agreement, which
    includes managerial staff in the hours cuts.

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    On 10 June 1999, a new enterprise-level collective agreement was signed for
    workers at the Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation (OTE). The deal
    provides for a new pay scale and new staff regulations, as well as the pilot
    implementation of a 35-hour working week without loss of pay.

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    In May 1999, a new regulation was introduced in Luxembourg which allows
    refugees from the Kosovo region to take up paid employment for a maximum
    renewable period of six months.

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    In May 1999, Unilever signed a new collective agreement with trade unions in
    the Netherlands. Starting in 2001, it will allow employees to determine their
    own package of terms and conditions, containing individualised elements
    within a clearly established framework.

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    In the run-up to the European Council meeting held in Cologne on 3-4 June
    1999, the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) reinforced its support
    for the German Presidency's proposal for an "employment pact" (EU9905174N
    [1]). It argued that an effective strategy for reducing unemployment was
    necessary to strengthen the European Union's credibility with workers and the
    public. In a statement on the eve of the summit [2], ETUC welcomed the
    inclusion of the employment chapter [3] in the Amsterdam Treaty, which came
    into force on 1 May 1999 (EU9905175N [4]), and the process of formulating and
    implementing Employment Guidelines [5] (EU9810130F [6]), but argued that in
    itself this was insufficient. It strongly argued that labour market policy
    measures had to be effectively combined with growth-oriented economic policy
    measures: "active employment and labour market policies coupled to essential
    economic reforms can help create the jobs Europe needs only if they are part
    of a strong growth scenario than we have today."

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/german-presidency-presents-draft-employment-pact
    [2] http://www.etuc.org/press/Highlight/pr14e.cfm
    [3] http://ue.eu.int/Amsterdam/en/traiteco/en/conso2/cons225.htm
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/amsterdam-treaty-enters-into-force
    [5] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/empl&esf/empl99/guide_en.htm
    [6] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/draft-employment-guidelines-for-1999-emphasise-continuity

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    In June 1999 the Belgian press and television carried pictures of Flemish
    lorry drivers blocking highways, verges and access roads to important
    seaports. The protests resembled those of strikers in France during 1997
    (FR9711177F [1]). As in the French case, the issues underlying the Belgian
    protests are complex. The gulf between lorry drivers and employers in the
    sector is very deep. Although the current dispute appears to be rather
    trivial, much more is actually at stake: trade unions are demanding a wage
    increase of BEF 10 an hour, but the employers are offering only BEF 8 an
    hour. A difference of BEF 2 can in itself hardly explain the tough stance
    adopted by the trade unions and the blockades. Indeed, a great deal more lies
    behind the dispute.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined/lorry-drivers-strike-raises-european-issues

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    Dissatisfaction on the part of junior doctors in the UK over out-of-hours pay
    and excessive workload has been fuelled by the outcome of the meeting of the
    EU's Council of Labour and Social Affairs Ministers on 25 May 1999 concerning
    proposals for extending the 1993 EU Directive on certain aspects of the
    organisation of working time (93/104/EC) [1] (EU9906178F [2]). The Council
    reached political agreement on a common position on the proposed "horizontal"
    Directive extending the provisions of the original Directive to non-mobile
    workers in previously excluded sectors. The Council proposed a nine-year
    transition period before the standard 48-hour limit on average weekly working
    hours would apply to doctors in training: a maximum average working week of
    60 hours would apply for the first three years; a 56-hour limit would apply
    for the following three years; and a 52-hour limit would apply for a further
    three years. Taking account of the proposed four-year timetable for national
    transposition of the Directive, the limit on the weekly working hours of
    doctors in training would be brought down to 48 hours over a total of 13
    years after the adoption of the Directive.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=31993L0104&model=guichett
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions/council-agrees-to-extend-working-time-directive-to-excluded-sectors

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    Late May 1999 saw the annual assembly of Italy's Confindustria employers'
    confederation and the publication of the Bank of Italy's Annual Report. In
    both cases, importance was assigned to reducing the tax burden, curbing
    public spending, and increasing labour market flexibility. Confindustria sees
    social concertation as important, but believes that the government should not
    always seek the consensus of the social partners.

  • Article
    27 juni 1999

    An analysis conducted by the Danish Employers' Confederation (Dansk
    Arbejdsgiverforening, DA), of the development of the total labour market
    participation rate in Denmark since 1950, has prompted the organisation to
    conclude that Danish GDP could have been much higher than it is today. The
    analysis is contained in DA's annual labour market report for 1999 [1].

    [1] http://www.da.dk/nyhed/amrap99/samfat99/index.htm

Series

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications