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  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The majority of Norwegian wage agreements are of two years' duration, and the
    current settlements will expire during 1998. However, issues relating to
    remuneration will be renegotiated at central level in 1997. Most of the
    agreements between LO (the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions or
    Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) and NHO (the Confederation of Norwegian Business
    and Industry or Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) in the private sector
    expire on 31 March 1997, and bargaining is expected to commence in mid-March.
    Agreements in the public sector expire one month later. The social partners
    have not yet specified their demands, but all the central parties have held
    initial bargaining conferences. In this feature, we describe the economic
    climate in Norway prior to the wage negotiations, examine the provisional
    demands the social partners have put forward, and comment on these demands in
    the light of the existing social pact between the central labour market
    parties in Norway, the so-called "Solidarity Alternative"

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    According to a recent analysis by the Institute for Economics and Social
    Science (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut, WSI) basic wages
    and salaries in western Germany grew on average by about 2.3% in 1996. Thus,
    pay increased by about 0.8 percentage points above the inflation rate, which
    stood at 1.5% in 1996. Altogether, about 15.1 million employees were covered
    by collective agreements signed in 1996. The highest pay increases, at 2.8%,
    were in the energy and water industry and in the iron and steel industry. The
    lowest increases were in banking (1.5%), post and telecommunications (1.4%)
    and public services (1.3%).

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    On 19 February, the Government presented a bill to Parliament, proposing
    modifications in the legislation concerning the granting of workers' claims
    in case of their employer's insolvency. There is no doubt that it will be
    passed by Parliament. This will then be the second time the legislation has
    been modified in order to comply with EU Council Directive 80/987/EEC on this

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The immediate catalyst for the current prominence of working time in UK
    industrial relations is the failure in November 1996 of the Government's
    attempt to have the EU Directive on certain aspects of the organisation of
    working time (Council Directive 93/104/EC of 23 November 1993) annulled by
    the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Steps are being taken to implement the
    Directive, though the present Conservative Government hopes to get the
    Directive "disapplied" if it wins the forthcoming general election. Also
    important, however, is the growing debate about the implications for the
    well-being of individuals and their families of the fact that UK's hours of
    work are long in comparison with other EU member states.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The end of 1996 and the first two months of 1997 were marked by a wave of
    strikes that began last November and December, upsetting the relative
    industrial calm that had existed over recent years. The strikes peaked during
    January but continued throughout February, for at least certain groups of
    employees, though by then they had begun to peter out. The strikes represent
    basically a head-on clash with the Government's policy of austerity, and
    focus primarily on discontent with the tax system and a recently-passed tax
    law. This clash also acquired a political character, since the demands of
    workers across various sectors converged and merged within the wider context
    of discontent.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The primary objectives of Partnership 2000 (P2000) are: " the continued
    development of an efficient modern economy capable of high and sustainable
    economic and employment growth and operating within the constraints of
    international competitiveness, ensuring that Irish society becomes more
    inclusive, that long-term unemployment is substantially reduced, and that the
    benefits of growth are more equally distributed. The strategy provides a
    framework within which specific issues or programmes will be developed, in
    the normal way."

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The Dutch Government wants to allow employers temporary exemptions from the
    legal minimum wage [1] (WML- wettelijk minimumloon), and to that end, a bill
    was submitted to Parliament in 1996. The target group consists of long-term
    unemployed people aged between 20 and 65. The purpose of the bill is to give
    such people the prospect of qualifying for a full-time job while working. The
    definition of "long-term unemployed" is taken from an existing statutory


  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    On Sunday 2 February 1997, a so-called "multicoloured march for jobs" drew
    about 50,000 people from all over Belgium to the streets of Clabecq, a small
    industrial town on the borders of the provinces of Brabant and Hainaut.

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    The new decree, issued on 14 January, brings Italian pensions legislation
    more into line with the rest of the EU. Presenting the decision to the press,
    the Minister of Labour, Tiziano Treu said that "1997 will be the year in
    which a real supplementary social security system will begin to be set up in

  • Article
    27 februar 1997

    On 6 February 1997, the Bundesverband Druck employers' association and the
    Industriegewerkschaft Medien trade union signed two new nationwide collective
    agreements for the 130,000 manual workers in the German printing industry.
    The first agreement covers the general developments of wages, and the second
    agreement is a renewal of the sector's general framework agreement on
    employment conditions [1] (Manteltarifvertrag).



  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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