The Social Inspection Services Anti-fraud Organisation (Organisation Anti-fraude des Services d’Inspection Sociale, OASIS) is a data warehouse, set up in 2001 in the framework of a common anti-fraud project organised by federal government ministries and national offices. OASIS is designed to combat social security fraud in a systematic and structured way. The data used by OASIS is supplied through the information channels of the Crossroads Bank for Social Security (Kruispuntbank van de Sociale Zekerheid, KSZ).
The Social Inspection Services Anti-fraud Organisation (Organisation Anti-fraude des Services d’Inspection Sociale, OASIS) is a data warehouse, set up in 2001 in the framework of a common anti-fraud project organised by federal government ministries and national offices. The actors involved in the implementation of the project include the:
- Federal Ministry of Employment, Labour and Social Dialogue (Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale/ Federale Overheidsdienst Werkgelegenheid, Arbeid en Sociaal Overleg);
- Federal Ministry of Social Security (Service public fédéral Sécurité sociale/Federale Overheidsdienst Sociale Zekerheid)
- National Office for Social Security (Office National de Sécurité Sociale/Rijksdienst voor Sociale Zekerheid, ONSS/RSZ)
- National Employment Office (Office National de l’Emploi/Rijksdienst voor Arbeidsvoorziening, ONEM/RVA).
OASIS is designed to combat social security fraud in a systematic and structured way and in particular to fight ‘the phenomenon of the labour broker, the false freelancer and alternative forms of remuneration eluding the social security contributions (and tax)’ (KSZ, 2003).
The data used by OASIS is supplied through the information channels of the Crossroads Bank for Social Security (Kruispuntbank van de Sociale Zekerheid, KSZ). The system examines incoming anonymous data against different fraud scenarios in order to detect cases of fraudulent behaviour. Moreover, the organisation receives information from nine different data sources and produces 23 reports alerting to possible fraudulent behaviour. The public sources from which it draws its information include the employers’ register, the wage and working hours database (LATG), the immediate declaration of employment (Déclaration Immédiate/Onmiddellijke Aangifte, DIMONA), the database of temporary unemployment and a number of other social databases. OASIS does not combine all available data from public sources, but only draws on a number of indicative partial data.
The internal audit service of the ONEM/RVA has started a strategic project to spread the use of OASIS indicators to all unemployment offices in the country. This initiative would support a more focused approach by the unemployment office control teams in curtailing social benefit fraud.
The initiative began in January 2001 and is still ongoing. The main target groups of the project include employers and employees.
The project aims to enable the social inspection services to conduct objective-oriented inspections and perform analyses on related data from different social security sectors with the overall objective of detecting and analysing cases of fraud.
OASIS determines warning indicators for situations such as:
- an increase in turnover but a decline in the number of employees;
- a reduction of registered personnel above a certain threshold;
- labour mobility – labour market entries and departures – above the industry average level;
- large differences in the total wage sum and the number of employees in a company compared with the employer’s previous employment declaration.
The organisation gathers data from a host of public databases, which is facilitated by the KSZ.
The detection and analysis of fraud scenarios does not require the use of individualised personal data. The law on privacy consequently requires all personal data provided to OASIS to be in coded form.
If OASIS has a strong suspicion of fraudulent behaviour at a company, social inspectors can then obtain access to the full data concerning the employer’s staff. In such cases, the national identification number (NISS) is then used to identify individuals.
Evaluation and outcome
In terms of achievement of objectives, the OASIS project has not yet undergone any evaluation process. The system, however, continues to function and has already resulted in a number of fraud detections.
So far, it is too soon to determine the project’s outcomes or potential problems arising as a result of the initiative.
In the course of 2006, the OASIS fraud detection team of the ONEM/RVA inspected 340 companies and identified 194 companies for follow-up analysis after finding signs of fraud. This has resulted in 361 requests for further analysis of companies. By 31 December 2006, 197 of these requests had been completed, resulting in 30 new inquiries into employment permits granted to companies, 10 indictments against employers and 66 reports on individual employees.
The ONEM/RVA presents data on the number of inquiries made in other databases used by OASIS.
The total costs incurred as a result of the OASIS project are so far unknown. The only information available to date on the issue of funding is that an external company supported the Ministry of Social Security at a total cost of €2,347,000 and that evaluation and adjustment of the basic infrastructure involved additional costs of €34,000.
The possibility to transfer this initiative to other countries is conditional on the existence of a sound e-government infrastructure.
Main organisation responsible: Crossroads Bank for Social Security.
Cremers, J. and Janssen, J. (eds.), Shifting employment: Undeclared labour in construction, Brussels, European Institute for Construction Labour Research, CLR Studies 5, 2006.
ONEM/RVA, Annual Report 2006.
ONSS/RSZ, E-government in the Belgian social security sector: Belgian best practices, Cernobbio, Villa Erba spa, 7–8 July 2003.