One of the first acts by the new French Prime Minister following his election
in June 1997 was to consult with employers and unions prior to announcing his
legislative programme. This move was greeted favourably by both employers and
trade unions, though their aims are quite different. A national conference on
pay, employment and working time is to be held in the autumn.
After several months of negotiations involving various local and central
government agencies, a long struggle for jobs at Grundig came to an end in
May 1997. In a region where workers reject job mobility, the only remaining
recourse is the courts and political channels. Dialogue between the board of
directors and workers' representatives has proved unsuccessful.
In Austria's "pay-as-you-go" pensions system, 22.75% of an individual's
monthly wage cost goes to pension insurance. There is a cap at a certain
monthly income - currently ATS 41,400 - which is raised annually. The gap
between contributions and benefits is covered from the federal budget. In
1996, ATS 30,000 million had to be covered by the budget in the employees'
scheme, which has 1.5 million pensioners, and ATS 25,500 million in the
self-employment and agricultural schemes, which has 345,000 pensioners. The
overall contribution from the federal budget is forecast to rise from ATS
55,500 million in 1996 to over ATS 80,000 million by the year 2001. In its
recently-announced budget plans, the Government is aiming to save ATS 16,000
million in contributions to the national pension insurance schemes over the
two years 1998 and 1999.
New figures presented in the revised national Budget in May 1997 show that
employment in Norway has increased faster than earlier estimates predicted,
and that unemployment is continuously decreasing. Growth in prices and wages
is expected to be moderate for both 1997 and 1998.
In the first ballot for the chair of the federal executive committee of the
teachers' trade union, Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft (GEW), held
among congress delegates on 26 May 1997, Dieter Wunder, chair since 1981,
surprisingly and unexpectedly failed to reach the necessary absolute
majority, although no rival candidate had been nominated. Mr Wunder
subsequently stood down as a candidate for the second ballot. It was the
first time that a trade union affiliated to the German Trade Union Federation
(Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB) had rejected the re-election of its chair
in such a way. After the results of the first ballot became public, the
congress was interrupted for several hours. During the previous months, there
had been considerable and controversial internal discussions on the
relationship between the federal executive committee and the executive
committees of regional GEW branches, as well as on leadership, trade union
ideologies and GEW strategies. Many delegates asserted that they wanted to
teach Mr Wunder a lesson, though it was not their intention to vote him out.
At the end of May 1997, the Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, signalled the
Government's intention of supporting new employment provisions in the
revision of the EU Treaty. He argued that initiatives to increase levels of
employment within the EU should have equal weight with the financial criteria
to be decided for Economic and Monetary Union. Believing that tackling
unemployment is a number one priority, Mr Cook also said "that is why we will
support an employment chapter within the treaty of the EU."
In May 1997, the Italian Government proposed emergency measures to modify the
pensions system in view of the entry criteria for EU Economic and Monetary
Union (EMU), causing particular problems in the schools sector.
In his inaugural address to the National Assembly on 19 June 1997, France's
new Prime Minister, Lionel Jospin, said nothing to clarify his position on
the privatisation programme planned by the outgoing Government.
During May-June 1997, Portuguese trade unions took part in the rallies and
days of action organised throughout the countries of the European Union in
order to emphasise work and employment as prime concerns for future European
On 28 May 1997, the Labour Court ruled that the municipality of Mjölby in
southern Sweden did not discriminate against two women teachers by paying
them SEK 1,119 less per month than their male colleague was paid for the same
job (AD 1997:68). The judgment is the latest of several setbacks for women
invoking the Act on Equality between Men and Women by claiming sex
discrimination in relation to pay.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.