Aufgrund der Auswirkungen von COVID-19 ist das Thema öffentliche Gesundheit auf der sozialpolitischen Agenda der EU nach oben gerückt. Da die EU ihre Anstrengungen auf den Aufbau einer Europäischen Gesundheitsunion ausrichtet, um sich für künftige Gesundheitskrisen zu wappnen, wird in diesem Kurzbericht untersucht, inwieweit die EU vor der Pandemie eine Aufwärtskonvergenz im Hinblick auf den Gesundheitszustand und die Ergebnisse der Gesundheitsversorgung sowie Gesundheitsausgaben und die Erbringung von Gesundheitsdienstleistungen erzielt hat.
Seit über zehn Jahren nimmt die Ungewissheit über die Zukunft in weiten Teilen der EU zu. Viele glauben, dass sich die Gesellschaft im Niedergang befindet, mit der Folge, dass allgemein Pessimismus um sich greift. Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen der steigenden Popularität von Parteien, die gegen das Establishment gerichtet sind, und dem zunehmenden Pessimismus? Diese negativen Gefühle könnten das politische Klima in einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten beeinträchtigen und auch die Legitimität des europäischen Aufbauwerks untergraben.
Dank digitaler Technologien ist es für viele Beschäftigte möglich geworden, jederzeit und von überall aus zu arbeiten, mit allen damit verbundenen Vor- und Nachteilen. Die Daten von Eurofound machen deutlich, dass Telearbeitnehmer mit doppelt so hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit die Höchstarbeitszeit von 48 Stunden überschreiten, unzureichende Ruhepausen einlegen und in ihrer Freizeit arbeiten, mit negativen Folgewirkungen für ihre physische und psychische Gesundheit. Zur Bewältigung dieses Problems wurden Rufe nach dem „Recht auf Nichterreichbarkeit“ laut.
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a surge in telework, with dramatic increases in the number of employees working from home (teleworking) in many European countries. What for many employees started out as a mandatory move seems to have transformed into a preference among the majority for part-time or full-time telework.
Following the declines in employment rates and working hours across Europe in 2020, economies began to show signs of recovery during the first quarter of 2021. The gradual rekindling of economic activity has led to a surge in demand for workers and reawakened concerns over labour shortages. Difficulty filling vacancies was thought to be among the key factors holding back growth, competitiveness and service delivery in a number of sectors prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Despite a temporary weakening in demand for labour during the pandemic, this was not the case in all sectors, with some seeing pre-existing shortages worsen.
While unemployment is still a huge challenge in Europe, some countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages. This report explores various approaches to identifying labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue. It documents public and social partner interventions to tackle labour shortages, such as measures fostering geographical or occupational mobility, addressing skills shortages and underinvestment in skills, improving working and employment conditions, and providing better matching procedures.
In den vergangenen zehn Jahren hat die EU langsam Fortschritte auf dem Weg hin zur Gleichstellung der Geschlechter gemacht. Da die Erfolge bei der Gleichstellung von Männern und Frauen von Mitgliedstaat zu Mitgliedstaat unterschiedlich sind, ist es wichtig, die Entwicklung dieser Unterschiede zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten und ihre Auswirkungen auf die wirtschaftliche und soziale Aufwärtskonvergenz in der EU zu verstehen.
Eurofound welcomed Ivailo Kalfin to his new role as Executive Director on 1 June. After one month in the job, he reflects on the challenges facing the EU, how they will impact on the work of Eurofound and his priorities for shaping the Agency over the next five years.
Mit dem europäischen grünen Deal leitet die EU eine Reihe von politischen Strategien und Maßnahmen ein, deren Ziel es ist, die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels zu verhüten und abzumildern. Das Hauptziel besteht darin, erste Schritte zum Übergang zu einer klimaneutralen Wirtschaft zu unternehmen. Diese dringend benötigten klimapolitischen Strategien können jedoch unerwünschte Verteilungsfolgen für Einzelpersonen und Unternehmen haben.
This report describes Eurofound's activities, particularly its research, information and communication programmes and policy achievements, in relation to the objectives set in the Work Programme 2020. It also covers the management and external evaluation control systems, key performance indicators, and financial and HR information.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.