One of the most striking developments of the last half-century has been the huge rise in female labour market participation in advanced economies. More than two out of every three net new jobs created over the last two decades in the EU have been taken up by women, who now account for 46% of the workforce in the EU27. In 2002, the comparable figure was less than 43% and in the early 1990s it was less than 40%. This is a reflection of growing opportunities for women as well as the consolidation of a broader trend towards dual earner households.
This paper provides a context for the questions to be explored within the Foundation Forum 2022. Europe is emerging from the COVID-19 crisis having managed to protect its economy in the face of a major shock and prevent mass unemployment. However, challenges remain. While the Member States up to now appear to have diverged only moderately, at most, on key economic and social indicators, it seems that the pandemic has widened many social inequalities. The mass shift to telework has raised questions over how the world of work will look in the future.
The informal meeting of EU ministers responsible for employment and social policy (EPSCO) took place in Bordeaux on 14–15 February 2022. The meeting focused on the challenges posed by the major green and digital transitions to the labour market, and the way in which the European Union can support these transitions within the framework of the construction of a new European model of growth.
In den vergangenen Jahren war über alle EU-Mitgliedstaaten hinweg – von einigen statistischen Ausreißern abgesehen – ein Rückgang der Arbeitskampfaktivität zu beobachten. Dieser Trend hat sich während der COVID-19-Pandemie fortgesetzt, wobei die am signifikantesten Konflikte, wenig überraschend, das Gesundheitswesen und die sozialen Einrichtungen, das Bildungswesen sowie die Bereiche Transport und Logistik betrafen. Dieser Bericht enthält eine Analyse der im Zeitraum 2018/2019 von Eurofound im Rahmen des Aufbaus der Pilotdatenbank „Industrial Action Monitor“ (IAM) erhobenen Daten.
In diesem Bericht werden die Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Krise auf die Lebensqualität älterer Menschen erfasst, darunter die Auswirkungen auf ihr Wohlbefinden, ihre Finanzen, ihre Beschäftigung und ihre soziale Eingliederung. Es werden die Auswirkungen auf die Inanspruchnahme von Pflegediensten und die Abhängigkeit älterer Menschen von anderen Unterstützungsleistungen untersucht. Es werden politische Maßnahmen vorgestellt, die in den Mitgliedstaaten der EU zur Unterstützung älterer Menschen in allen vorgenannten Bereichen durchgeführt wurden.
The first overview of minimum wage setting for 2022 shows that, while some negotiations are still ongoing, virtually all EU Member States have increased their nominal statutory rates. Compared to last year, when most countries settled for cautious increases against a background of deep uncertainty caused by the pandemic, growth in statutory rates for 2022 was stronger, reflecting an easing of the situation. This was especially the case in central and eastern European countries, where some increases were in double digits. Nevertheless, inflation is back in the picture and should be monitored in the coming months to get an insight into how the increases in nominal minimum wage rates translate into actual changes in the purchasing power of minimum wage earners.
Die Prioritäten von Eurofound für den Zeitraum 2021–2024 werden von den zentralen Herausforderungen für den sozialen Zusammenhalt und für gerechte Übergänge in einem sich wandelnden Umfeld nach der COVID-19-Krise bestimmt. Dieses Arbeitsprogramm bezieht sich auf ein Europa nach der COVID-19-Krise. Die Unsicherheit, die die vergangenen zwei Jahre geprägt hat, wirft weiterhin ihren Schatten voraus und wird die Art und Weise, wie wir leben und arbeiten, umfassend und wahrscheinlich langfristig verändern.
The European Union Agencies Network on Scientific Advice (EU-ANSA) consists of technical and regulatory agencies that provide scientific advice to EU policymakers. This report demonstrates how EU-ANSA member Agencies are addressing the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development. It is based on two surveys conducted among the member Agencies. The survey results show that the most researched areas include the economy, employment, skills and training, gender inequalities, health and safety, social aspects, the role of regulation and social dialogue.
Aufwärtskonvergenz bildet den Kern des Projekts Europäische Union. Die Mitgliedstaaten und ihre Bürger schließen sich der Union an, weil sie sich von ihrer Mitgliedschaft erwarten, dass sie zu ausgewogenem wirtschaftlichen Wohlstand und zu sozialem Fortschritt in den Ländern führt. Zunehmende Ungleichheiten zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten, wie sie in der Wirtschaftskrise 2008-2013 zu beobachten waren, könnten als Verrat und als Nichteinhaltung des Versprechens der EU gesehen werden und die Voraussetzungen für Unmut und Zerfall schaffen.
Der technologische Wandel beschleunigt sich mit der zunehmenden Leistungsfähigkeit elektronischer Geräte zur digitalen Speicherung, Verarbeitung und Kommunikation von Informationen. Die Digitalisierung verändert die Wirtschaft und die Arbeitsmärkte in der EU: Nahezu ein Drittel der Arbeitsplätze in der EU wird als in hohem Maße digitalisiert eingestuft. Welche Auswirkungen hat die digitale Revolution auf Beschäftigung und Arbeit? Und wie könnte sie sich auf den sozialen Dialog auswirken?
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
The report describes trends in social and economic discontent across the EU between 2002 and 2020, highlighting in particular the turbulent times brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. The report explores the evolution of social cohesion and its impact on economic and social discontent. It assesses the relationship between social cohesion and discontent during the pandemic, allowing for a comparison of the situation as it stands in 2023. The focus of the report is on regions where social cohesion is low, where a contrast is drawn with regions where social cohesion is much higher.
This report analyses the working conditions and job quality of different types of self-employed workers. Drawing on data from the European Working Conditions Survey, it looks into policies in Member States aimed at addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with specific types of self-employment.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the chemical sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the chemical sector in the EU Member States.
The focus of this report is on the role that human capital plays in determining inequalities across the EU, as well as within Member States. Using Cedefop’s work in this area, the report provides a comparative analysis of national trends in education and lifelong learning, including differences between educational groups in terms of income, living conditions and health.
The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States.
This report explores the implications of the right of all EU citizens to live independently. It investigates the barriers faced by people who wish to live independently, and the situation of people at risk of living in institutional settings. It maps the various measures taken by EU Member States to foster independent living and autonomy. The report also includes policy pointers to support future decision-makers and provides a review of lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.