This report provides an update on the role of national social partners in the European Semester process over the period 2015–2016, describing the main developments and changes compared with a previous Eurofound study on their involvement during the period 2011–2014. It examines the social partners’ involvement in the elaboration of the National Reform Programmes and to what extent they are heard and their views taken into account with regard to social and labour policies. Overall, the involvement of social partners in most Member States is carried out in a relatively smooth way. Some progress can be identified in terms of both the number of Member States in which improvement has taken place and the procedures applied for involving the social partners. However, significant differences remain in the practices, quality and effectiveness of social partner involvement in the European Semester process. An executive summary is available - see Related content.