Aufgrund der Auswirkungen von COVID-19 ist das Thema öffentliche Gesundheit auf der sozialpolitischen Agenda der EU nach oben gerückt. Da die EU ihre Anstrengungen auf den Aufbau einer Europäischen Gesundheitsunion ausrichtet, um sich für künftige Gesundheitskrisen zu wappnen, wird in diesem Kurzbericht untersucht, inwieweit die EU vor der Pandemie eine Aufwärtskonvergenz im Hinblick auf den Gesundheitszustand und die Ergebnisse der Gesundheitsversorgung sowie Gesundheitsausgaben und die Erbringung von Gesundheitsdienstleistungen erzielt hat.
Seit über zehn Jahren nimmt die Ungewissheit über die Zukunft in weiten Teilen der EU zu. Viele glauben, dass sich die Gesellschaft im Niedergang befindet, mit der Folge, dass allgemein Pessimismus um sich greift. Besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen der steigenden Popularität von Parteien, die gegen das Establishment gerichtet sind, und dem zunehmenden Pessimismus? Diese negativen Gefühle könnten das politische Klima in einzelnen Mitgliedstaaten beeinträchtigen und auch die Legitimität des europäischen Aufbauwerks untergraben.
Dank digitaler Technologien ist es für viele Beschäftigte möglich geworden, jederzeit und von überall aus zu arbeiten, mit allen damit verbundenen Vor- und Nachteilen. Die Daten von Eurofound machen deutlich, dass Telearbeitnehmer mit doppelt so hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit die Höchstarbeitszeit von 48 Stunden überschreiten, unzureichende Ruhepausen einlegen und in ihrer Freizeit arbeiten, mit negativen Folgewirkungen für ihre physische und psychische Gesundheit. Zur Bewältigung dieses Problems wurden Rufe nach dem „Recht auf Nichterreichbarkeit“ laut.
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a surge in telework, with dramatic increases in the number of employees working from home (teleworking) in many European countries. What for many employees started out as a mandatory move seems to have transformed into a preference among the majority for part-time or full-time telework.
Following the declines in employment rates and working hours across Europe in 2020, economies began to show signs of recovery during the first quarter of 2021. The gradual rekindling of economic activity has led to a surge in demand for workers and reawakened concerns over labour shortages. Difficulty filling vacancies was thought to be among the key factors holding back growth, competitiveness and service delivery in a number of sectors prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Despite a temporary weakening in demand for labour during the pandemic, this was not the case in all sectors, with some seeing pre-existing shortages worsen.
While unemployment is still a huge challenge in Europe, some countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages. This report explores various approaches to identifying labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue. It documents public and social partner interventions to tackle labour shortages, such as measures fostering geographical or occupational mobility, addressing skills shortages and underinvestment in skills, improving working and employment conditions, and providing better matching procedures.
In den vergangenen zehn Jahren hat die EU langsam Fortschritte auf dem Weg hin zur Gleichstellung der Geschlechter gemacht. Da die Erfolge bei der Gleichstellung von Männern und Frauen von Mitgliedstaat zu Mitgliedstaat unterschiedlich sind, ist es wichtig, die Entwicklung dieser Unterschiede zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten und ihre Auswirkungen auf die wirtschaftliche und soziale Aufwärtskonvergenz in der EU zu verstehen.
Eurofound welcomed Ivailo Kalfin to his new role as Executive Director on 1 June. After one month in the job, he reflects on the challenges facing the EU, how they will impact on the work of Eurofound and his priorities for shaping the Agency over the next five years.
Mit dem europäischen grünen Deal leitet die EU eine Reihe von politischen Strategien und Maßnahmen ein, deren Ziel es ist, die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels zu verhüten und abzumildern. Das Hauptziel besteht darin, erste Schritte zum Übergang zu einer klimaneutralen Wirtschaft zu unternehmen. Diese dringend benötigten klimapolitischen Strategien können jedoch unerwünschte Verteilungsfolgen für Einzelpersonen und Unternehmen haben.
This report describes Eurofound's activities, particularly its research, information and communication programmes and policy achievements, in relation to the objectives set in the Work Programme 2020. It also covers the management and external evaluation control systems, key performance indicators, and financial and HR information.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Automation and digitisation technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), are undergoing a rapid evolution. This impacts working conditions in a variety of ways and raises a host of new ethical concerns. In recent times, the policy debate surrounding these concerns has become more prominent and has increasingly focused on AI. Key EU policy developments, especially in relation to AI, have shaped the policy debate in many EU Member States, and in some instances they have led to the adoption of new policy initiatives that address these concerns in the context of work and employment.
Every year, Eurofound compiles a report summarising the key developments in minimum wages across EU countries. The report explains how minimum wages are set and describes the role of social partners, covering the evolution of statutory rates, collectively agreed wages and the national debates on these issues.
As part of a process to collect information on essential services, the European Commission (DG EMPL) requested Eurofound to provide input on certain aspects of existing and planned measures in the Member States to improve access to essential services, in reference to Principle 20 of the European Pillar of Social Rights. The scope of the exercise included energy services, public transport and digital communications, and the focus was on people at risk of poverty or social exclusion (in practice, people on low incomes in most cases).
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.