Eine der auffälligsten Entwicklungen in den vergangenen fünfzig Jahren ist der enorme Anstieg der Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen. Zwei von drei in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten in der EU neu geschaffenen Nettoarbeitsplätzen wurden von Frauen besetzt. Zugleich haben stark steigende Erwerbsquoten von älteren Arbeitnehmern aufgrund der Alterung der Bevölkerung und politischer Veränderungen zu einem Anstieg des Anteils älterer Arbeitnehmer auf dem Arbeitsmarkt geführt.
Trotz der in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen und einem höheren Anteil von Frauen als Männern, die in gut bezahlten Berufen eingestellt wurden, besteht in allen EU-Mitgliedstaaten ein geschlechtsspezifisches Lohngefälle. Das Lohngefälle zwischen Frauen und Männern wird erwiesenermaßen maßgeblich vom Wirtschaftssektor, in dem die Menschen arbeiten, und dem Beruf, in dem sie tätig sind, beeinflusst.
Digital transformation is changing the world of work. This report looks at how social partners – the actors involved in the regulation of employment relationships – are increasingly adopting technological solutions to improve the services that they provide to their members and facilitate collective bargaining processes. Technological tools offer social partners the opportunity to enhance consultation, engage with their members through digitised processes, improve services and increase networking activities, as well as addressing the issue of membership decline.
Mit diesem Bericht sollen europäische Unternehmen bei der Bewältigung der Herausforderungen der COVID-19-Pandemie unterstützt werden. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf arbeitsplatzbezogenen Verfahren und Strukturen, die dazu beigetragen haben, dass Unternehmen überall in der EU Betriebsstabilität entwickeln und zugleich für die Sicherheit ihrer Beschäftigten sowie der Kundinnen und Kunden Sorge tragen konnten.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in several sectors and activities that form a public service cluster across the 27 EU Member States and the UK – altogether employing over 57 million workers and representing 25% of the total workforce in the economy. It is based on Eurofound’s representativeness studies on the central government administration (CGA), education, human health, local and regional government (LRG), and social services sectors.
The advent of AI has far more consequences for how work is organised, performed and valued than any previous technological revolution. In order to make the most of this digital transformation we need inclusive and nuanced policy debates on its employment effects and how to future-proof policies: we need to talk about AI.
We need to study and understand the blow Europe’s youth have suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to adjust recovery and resilience measures to their needs: without prioritising young people in the present, we have little hope for the future.
Der rasche Aufstieg der Plattformwirtschaft hat zu einer ausgeprägten Veränderung der europäischen Arbeitsmärkte geführt, sodass bei den vorhandenen rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen und freiwilligen Initiativen noch Nachholbedarf besteht. Plattformarbeit bietet zwar Chancen für Arbeitskräfte und Arbeitgeber und trägt potenziell zu Innovation, Wirtschaftswachstum und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit in der EU bei, wurde jedoch von Anfang an wegen der schlechten Beschäftigungs- und Arbeitsbedingungen, denen die Arbeitskräfte häufig ausgesetzt sind, kritisiert.
While high-street banks reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic by accelerating the push to digitalisation and cutting jobs, some digital-only banks are recruiting new staff to meet growing demand. An example is the ‘disruptor’ bank Revolut which has recently announced the creation of 1,000 jobs worldwide, including in several EU Member States.
Nach einer langwierigen Erholung von der Wirtschaftskrise (2007–2013) haben sich die jungen Menschen in der EU anfälliger für die Auswirkungen der zur Eindämmung der COVID-19-Pandemie eingeführten Beschränkungen gezeigt. Im Vergleich zu Gruppen von Menschen höheren Alters waren junge Menschen häufiger von Arbeitsplatzverlusten, finanzieller Unsicherheit und psychischen Problemen betroffen. Sie berichteten von einer verminderten Zufriedenheit mit dem eigenen Leben und einem verringerten psychischen Wohlbefinden aufgrund des verpflichtenden Zuhausebleibens und der Schulschließungen.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
Digitisation and automation technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), can affect working conditions in a variety of ways and their use in the workplace raises a host of new ethical concerns. Recently, the policy debate surrounding these concerns has become more prominent and has increasingly focused on AI. This report maps relevant European and national policy and regulatory initiatives. It explores the positions and views of social partners in the policy debate on the implications of technological change for work and employment.
Every year, Eurofound compiles a report summarising the key developments in minimum wages across EU countries. The report explains how minimum wages are set and describes the role of social partners, covering the evolution of statutory rates, collectively agreed wages and the national debates on these issues.
As part of a process to collect information on essential services, the European Commission (DG EMPL) requested Eurofound to provide input on certain aspects of existing and planned measures in the Member States to improve access to essential services, in reference to Principle 20 of the European Pillar of Social Rights. The scope of the exercise included energy services, public transport and digital communications, and the focus was on people at risk of poverty or social exclusion (in practice, people on low incomes in most cases).
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.