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  • Article
    27 April 1997

    In April 1997, the Norwegian Supreme Court found the Government not guilty of
    abusing compulsory arbitration in order to stop industrial conflict. The
    Federation of Offshore Workers' Trade Unions (OFS), which brought the
    domestic lawsuit against the Government, lost on all counts.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    In the framework of negotiations for the two-year National General Collective
    Agreement covering the years 1996 and 1997, the GSEE (Greek General
    Confederation of Labour) trade union confederation placed on the agenda of
    discussions with the employers its demand for the reduction of weekly working
    hours to 35 without a reduction in pay. The negotiations led to the creation
    of a working party of technical experts from both sides of industry to study
    the issue and its effects on employment and competitiveness.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    An international comparison of labour disputes from 1986 to 1995 by /Labour
    Market Trends/ (April 1997) highlights that the UK had the fourth-lowest
    strike rate of the 22 member countries of the Organisation for Economic
    Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 1995. Only Austria, Switzerland and
    Germany had a lower level of strikes than the UK. The UK strike rate has been
    below the OECD average since 1986 and below the EU average since 1990.
    Between 1991 and 1995 the average rate in the UK was 24 working days lost per
    1,000 workers - an 82% fall over the previous five-year period. But the UK's
    rise in the international "league table" of two places since 1994 took place
    despite an increase in the strike rate itself.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    A Presidential Decree on the establishment of European Works Councils (EWCs)
    in Greece was signed on 20 March 1997. Its purpose is to transpose into Greek
    law EC Directive 94/45/EC on the provision of information and consultation to
    employees in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of
    undertakings, which, under the terms of the Directive, should have been
    transposed by 22 September 1996. The Presidential Decree takes up the option
    provided in the Directive of not applying its provisions to maritime workers.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    In the Netherlands, there has been a long struggle over how responsibilities
    for administering social security should be divided between social partners
    and the government. The Dutch social security administration has been
    reorganised - most recently from March 1997 - under pressure of criticism
    about organisations in which the social partners play a dominant role.
    Financing the social security system has become a structural problem in the
    relations between the Government and the social partners. This has become
    especially manifest in conflicts concerning the level at which social
    security contributions should be set.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    Under a novel provision in the Finance Bill, 1997 which gives effect to this
    year's Budget, employees are now entitled to tax relief on individual
    lump-sum payments paid in the context of company restructuring. The payments
    can be made by companies to their employees for agreeing to pay
    restructuring, which must involve overall pay reductions of at last 10% of an
    employee's average salary for the previous two years and must remain in force
    for at least five years. While it is possible that basic pay could be hit by
    the measure, the sort of payroll reductions envisaged are more likely to
    effect non-basic pay items such as overtime, bonus payments and shift

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    An Intergovernmental Conference is the method used by the Member States of
    the European Union (EU) to agree on basic changes to the Treaties which
    govern the workings of the Union. Changes to the Treaties are not carried out
    within the framework of the EU itself, but by direct negotiations between the
    governments of the Member States within the context of the IGC. The current
    IGC is the sixth in the history of European integration.

  • Article
    27 April 1997

    The cases have been hailed as a major victory for all National Health Service
    (NHS) staff by the Manufacturing, Science and Finance (MSF) trade union,
    which represented the workers involved in their cases. The union's national
    secretary, Roger Kline said that the: "case is a momentous one. It has
    implications for women staff throughout the NHS and other industries. It is a
    landmark decision and is the biggest single breakthrough on equal pay for
    women for many years."


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications