Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
In February 2002, the National Mediation Office (Medlingsinstitutet)
presented its first annual report , covering 2001. The National Mediation
Office was established in 2000 (SE9912110F ) and its primary function is
to be responsible for mediation in labour disputes in cases where the social
partners have not reached their own agreements on bargaining rules and
mediation (see below). The National Mediation Office's most important goal,
as formulated by its director-general Anders LindstrÃ¶m in May
2001(SE0105195F ), is to achieve a well-functioning and sustainable
process of wage formation on the Swedish labour market. Among the National
Mediation Office's tasks is the publication of an annual report on wage
developments. The National Mediation Office is also responsible for public
wage statistics, conducting analyses and promoting research, all in order to
provide a sound basis for the social partners' wage negotiations.
In early 2002, a further restructuring of Hunosa, Spain's largest coal-mining
company, is under negotiation, within the framework of the 1998-2005 national
plan for the future of coal mining, against a background of EU plans to cut
coal production. The restructuring will involve a reduction of some 2,600 in
Hunosa's 6,200-strong workforce, and trade unions dispute some aspects of the
Disputes over general practitioners' consultation fees continued in France in
March 2002. An agreement on new rates signed in January by the CNAMTS
sickness insurance funds and one of the two general practitioners'
associations was rejected by other association, which has continued to
organise action, such as refusing to work on-call at night or at weekends.
Furthermore, a minority of doctors are systematically charging fees in excess
of the going rate. Meanwhile, the authorities are continuing to establish a
new system of organising the relationship between the sickness insurance
funds and doctors, and disputes in other parts of the health sector are still
at serious levels.
Economic growth continued quite strongly across most of the EU Member States
during the first half of 2001, after a robust performance in 2000. However,
the economies of many countries began to falter towards the middle of the
year and the nascent downturn was exacerbated by the terrorist attacks on the
USA of 11 September, throwing many sectors, such as civil aviation, tourism
and related industries, into crisis. Thus, annual growth figures for the year
to the third quarter of 2001 show that average GDP growth was 1.4% in both
the 12 countries of the 'euro-zone' and the 15 Member States, down
significantly when compared with the figure of 3.4% in the euro-zone and 3.3%
in the 15 Member States for the year to the third quarter of 2000 - see
figure 1 below. Growth was highest in the year to the third quarter of 2001
in Spain (2.8%) and the UK (2.2%), and lowest in Finland (0.0%) and Germany
Telecommunications and most types of postal service were long organised as a
state monopoly in Austria. The services covered by this monopoly were
performed by the Austrian Postal Authorities (Österreichische Post- und
Telegraphenverwaltung, ÖPTV), which was part of the public service sector.
The ÖPTV was succeeded in 1996 by Post- und Telekom Austria (PTA), which is
organised according to private company law. Both organisations cover(ed) both
posts and telecommunications and the two areas are examined together here -
indeed the NACE 'statistical classification of economic activities in the
European Community' lists them both under NACE classification 64 ('post and
Over 2001 and 2002, a number of industrial tribunal rulings have highlighted
the 'abusive' use of temporary agency work in the French automobile industry.
The use of agency workers is widespread in this sector, and tribunals have
found that in some cases this has exceeded the bounds of the law.
Uil, one of Italy's three main trade union confederations, held its 13th
national congress in March 2002 in Turin. The congress was dominated by the
conflict between the unions and the government on the latter's proposals for
reform of the labour market, the pension system and the tax system. Debate at
the congress also highlighted the political divisions between the three union
On 26 March 2002, the Swedish government announced that it had decided to
support a proposal from the board of the Swedish-based telecommunications
company Telia AB for a merger with the Finnish-owned Sonera Oyj. The merger
will involve a share exchange, with the current Telia shareholders owning 64%
of the new company and current Sonera shareholders 36%. The merged company
would be the largest telecommunications operator in the Nordic countries and
the Baltic states. Currently, the Swedish state owns 70% of Telia, and the
Finnish state 53% of Sonera. The Swedish state would own 45% of the new
merged company, and the Finnish state 19%. Telia currently has about 34,000
employees and Sonera 10,000.
In March 2002, a Finnish parliamentary working group on adult education and
training submitted a proposal for raising education and skill levels. The SAK
trade union confederation finds the proposal significant from the perspective
of helping employees cope at work and improving employment opportunities. The
TT employers' confederation has presented its own programme for raising the
level of 'know-how' in Finland.
The second annual programme of work based on the Foundation's four-year programme 2001-2004: analysing and anticipating change to support socio-economic progress. The principles of the programme include developing and consolidating the main areas of activity: research / development, debate / discussion, information / dissemination; and strengthening core areas of expertise - working conditions, living conditions and industrial relations.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Technological developments, new forms of employment and new ways of organising work are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects on working conditions. These changes are affecting the different economic sectors and occupations in different ways. This study uses data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey to illustrate the changes in working conditions that different sectors and occupations are experiencing and to compare job quality within them.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the human health sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) report for 2020 looks at the specificities of large-scale transnational restructurings of companies operating in different EU Member States. It examines the factors affecting how companies make decisions regarding their international distribution of employment and how any conflicts arising are addressed or resolved. The research is based on over 1,000 large transnational restructurings recorded in the ERM events database.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
Recent technological developments as well as management tools and practices allow for the collection of more data, and new kinds of data, about workers. This enables the quantification of activities that may not previously have been measured or tracked in a given workplace and their (automatic) processing. As a consequence, the frontiers between workplace monitoring, quality control and worker surveillance may be blurring.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.