Publications

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  • Article
    27 September 1999

    1999 is the United Nations International Year of Older Persons [1] and in
    acknowledgement of this, the European Commission published in May a
    Communication entitled Towards a Europe for all ages - promoting prosperity
    and intergenerational solidarity(COM(1999) 221 final) [2]. It details the
    demographic, social and economic effects of ageing and proposes strategies
    intending to ensure that an effective policy is in place to support the
    ageing population. The aim of the Communication is to stimulate debate
    between and with Member States.

    [1] http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/iyop/
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/soc-prot/ageing/com99-221/com221_en.pdf

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    By making state funding for working time reductions contingent upon a company
    agreement signed by majority trade unions or approval by a majority of the
    employees, France's draft bill for a second law on the 35-hour week - issued
    in summer 1999 - has brought the issue of unions' representative status to
    the fore. Unions are split over the law's provisions on this issue.

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    In the first six months of 1999, collective bargaining progressed well in
    Spain, according to figures from the CC.OO trade union confederation, though
    greater success has been achieved in revising agreements than in reaching new
    ones. Wage moderation has prevailed, and the agreements contain more clauses
    on employment and on shorter working hours, though the reduction is moderate.

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    In an unusual move, the first collective agreement of the 1999-2000
    bargaining round covers about 50,000 salaried employees in crafts and trades,
    excluding metalworking and the construction and timber sectors. From 1
    January 2000, their minimum salaries will, on average, rise by 1.6%. The
    lowest full-time annual gross salary will then be ATS 161,980. Actual
    salaries may rise by less, since their increase is not specified in the
    agreement. The deal was concluded between the Union of Salaried Employees
    (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) and 30 trades associations of the
    Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ).

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    In September 1999, the Finnish Metalworkers' Union announced its aim of
    achieving a new incomes policy agreement to succeed the current national
    deal, which expires in January 2000. The union has threatened a general
    strike, if necessary, in the event that sector-specific problems in the
    forestry and chemical industries, which form an obstacle to reaching an
    overall national agreement, cannot be resolved.

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    A governmental committee chaired by special commissioner Hans Stark, a former
    chief judge in the Labour Court, has been reviewing certain parts of the Act
    concerning Equality between Men and Women (jämställdhetslagen, /1991:
    433/). The review has primarily been conducted in order to achieve
    harmonisation with EC equality law, and should also been seen in conjunction
    with the three new Acts forbidding discrimination at work - covering
    discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin, sexual orientation and disability
    - adopted in March 1999 (SE9903148F [1]). The issues that have been
    considered by the committee include the nature of the ban on discrimination
    set out in the Act, damages for victims of discrimination, wage surveys and
    issues related to work evaluation.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/three-new-anti-discrimination-acts-approved-by-parliament

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    The European Commission believes that, in order for social protection to be
    sustainable and progress into the next century, a clear strategy needs to be
    implemented by Member States, with whom responsibility for their respective
    social protection systems ultimately lies. However, in a new Communication
    entitled A concerted strategy for modernising social protection(COM (1999)
    347) [1], issued on 14 July 1999, the Commission also recognises the
    importance of developing a close dialogue between Member States and EU
    institutions on the future of social protection systems. The Communication
    follows up the 1997 Communication

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/soc-prot/social/com99-347/com99-347_en.pdf

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    France's second bill on the 35-hour week, under parliamentary discussion in
    autumn 1999, will exclude many managerial and professional staff from the
    regulations on the length of working time applicable to all employees. Their
    maximum working time will be expressed as 217 days per year, with few
    restrictions related to the number of hours worked. These measures have
    provoked heated responses from the trade unions, which suggests that a lively
    debate will ensue over this issue in parliament.

  • Article
    27 September 1999

    From January 2000, insurance for work-related accidents and occupational
    illnesses will be obligatory for Portugal's numerous self-employed workers,
    many of whom work in the construction sector where the level of accidents is
    the highest. The new legislation is one more step towards defining the status
    of self-employed workers, but the trade unions see it as a means of applying
    pressure to clarify the status of workers in situations of bogus
    self-employment.

Series

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications