Most discussions on the future of work are dominated by the impact of key changes in society, such as the digital revolution and demographic changes. These changes raise various issues of concern, sometimes suggesting contradictory trends such as labour shortages linked to an ageing population, or new technologies resulting in job loss. Migration and mobility are discussed as part of the solution, but also present important challenges of their own.
A recent article by the Foundation of Savings Banks highlights the vulnerable position of young Spanish people on the labour market, in terms of difficult access to employment, poor transition from education into work, high prevalence of precarious work, and lack of social protection rights.
In 2015, the second Estonian Work Life Survey was conducted by Statistics Estonia. This article describes some of the results of the survey, focusing on industrial relations and occupational health. The results showed that the collective agreement coverage rate as well as the level of employee representation is very low, as is employee awareness about the existence of their representatives.
According to the European Commission’s ‘Communication on a European agenda for a collaborative economy’, collaborative platforms have the potential to create new jobs, boost flexible working arrangements and result in new sources of income. While employers believe offers new opportunities, unions are concerned that micro enterprises and SMEs could be excluded from social and employment law.
This profile describes the key characteristics of working life at EU level. It aims to complement other EurWORK research on EU-level developments and reference tools, such as the European Industrial Relations Dictionary, by providing the relevant background information on structures, actors and developments regarding working life.
Social dialogue still matters in Europe. Recent EU-level policy debates have highlighted that, particularly since the 2008 crisis, the emergence of new debates on social justice, democracy, the quality of work and new models for labour relations have been challenging traditional industrial relations and social dialogue systems. The main objective of this comparative study is to gather information on how social partners in the EU28 and Norway have responded to the many new political, legal and social challenges that have arisen in recent years.
Competence checks of refugees have shown that they are better qualified than was previously thought. However, a recent study has found that their chances of being employed are worse than for other migrant groups. The Public Employment Service has reserved €68 million for measures in 2016 targeted at their integration into the labour market.
The concept of NEET (young people not in employment, education or training) has, since 2010, been widely used as a tool to inform youth-oriented policies in the 28 Member States of the European Union. While it has been a valuable addition to more traditional indicators used to understand the economic and social vulnerability of young people and their labour market participation, it has often been criticised because of the heterogeneity of the population it captures. This report explores the diversity of NEETs and suggests seven subgroups into which the NEET population can be disaggregated using data routinely collected for the EU Labour Force Survey.
This study provides information designed to encourage sectoral social dialogue in the maritime transport sector. The aim of Eurofound’s series of representativeness studies is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. Top-down and bottom-up analyses of the maritime transport sector in the 25 EU Member States covered in the study reveal that ETF and ECSA are the most important European-level social partner organisations in the sector based on their membership.
A new census of the membership of employer organisations and trade unions, slow progress on reforms and macroeconomic imbalances, and protests and strikes in the health and security sectors are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Bulgaria in the first quarter of 2016.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
Platform work – the matching of supply of and demand for paid labour through an online platform or app – is gaining increasing importance in Europe. It has attracted policy attention due to its inherent opportunities and challenges. Across Europe, initiatives have been introduced by governments, social partners and grassroots organisations aimed at harnessing the potential and reducing the risks of this employment form. The areas covered include regulation, representation, advice and information provision, as well as measures addressing social protection, ratings and training.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.