/The defence industry relies on skilled labour and resources in Europe, and
has faced a period of considerable change and uncertainty since the end of
the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s. Until now, national governments
of EU Member States have had considerable control over the industry while the
recent EU Code of Conduct for defence procurement intends to introduce more
openness to the market. The first of three articles in the Sector Futures
series on this sector delineates the defence industry sector and examines its
market size, structure and nature of employment. It also explores the trends
and drivers likely to shape the sector’s future, such as changes in demand,
in the nature of production and the dominance of the United States./
Sector Futures provides specialised reports based on the monitoring of
existing foresight studies, scenario work, innovation studies and reliable
data sources. July 2004 features the last article in the series on the future
of the automotive sector. It explores some of the directions that EU policy
could take to safeguard the future of the industry and guarantee a cleaner
and safer environment for all citizens.
/Against a background of severe economic and social problems during
Poland’s transition to the market economy, a group of company managers from
British Petroleum Polska, Sheraton, ABB and Commercial Union formed the
Autokreacja Association in 2002. The association aims to promote and support
responsible business practices that benefit both businesses and society,
while helping to achieve social, economic and environmentally sustainable
development. As part of this aim, it offers intensive training programmes to
disadvantaged, unemployed young people to improve their chances of finding
The impacts of the 2012 labour market reform have been mixed and not necessarily clear cut. Employers’ representatives have generally welcomed the changes, but suggested flexibility should be further encouraged. Trade unions claim the quality of employment has deteriorated and labour precariousness increased, accompanied by a growing imbalance in income distribution.
The year 2016 marks the fourth and final year of implementation of Eurofound’s four-year work programme 2013–2016, From crisis to recovery: Better informed policies for a competitive and fair Europe. The multiannual strategy laid down in the four-year programme provides Eurofound with a clear framework for the development of its annual programmes.
Unions have welcomed a ruling by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that travel time for mobile workers should be treated as working time. Employer organisations have not commented, but the UK's umbrella national employer organisation, the CBI, has said it is vital the UK’s opt-out from the EU working time directive is retained.
The hotly debated changes to Norway’s Working Environment Act came into force on 1 July 2015. They affect temporary employment, working time, age limits, maximum penalties and the collective right to sue. Protests over the changes led to the first general strike since 1998. Opposition parties have vowed to repeal them if they come into power in 2017.
A lack of skilled workers is threatening Hungary’s competitiveness and longer-term economic development, argue employers. Many positions created by the government with EU funding go unfilled, although recent statistics indicate a decreased mismatch between job-seekers and available vacancies. The social partners and the government agree more should be done to improve skills, although priorities differ.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
Research into the transformative potential of the digital revolution tends to take a quantitative approach in an attempt to monitor changes in employment levels due to digitalisation. The fear of potential job losses and negative disruption brought about by digital technologies has permeated the policy debate on digitalisation. In contrast, this report, based on case study research, takes a more qualitative approach to exploring the impact of selected digital technologies (internet of things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality) in the workplace.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This study presents policy-relevant findings on differential pay rates for men and women at occupational level. Previous research has underlined that the gender pay gap is biggest – and has been slowest to narrow – in well-paid jobs requiring professional qualifications. These are also jobs in which the female worker share is increasing relatively fast. The report maps the extent of the gender pay gap across the job-wage distribution, taking into account the shifting gender composition of specific sectors, occupations and jobs.
The European Jobs Monitor tracks changes in employment structure and contributes to the debate about whether European labour markets are polarising or upgrading. The European Jobs Monitor report in 2021 looks in particular at two dimensions of change in labour supply – increased female participation and population/workforce ageing – to show how they can contribute to an understanding of recent changes in employment structure.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically reshaped workplace practices and work organisation across the EU. This report explores changes that occurred as a result of or during the COVID-19 pandemic in areas such as technological transformation, decision-making and remote working. The research sets out to learn from company experiences and measures that have proved critical to keeping businesses running. It aims to inform policymakers, employers and trade unions on how to make businesses, workplaces and workers more resilient in the face of a crisis such as COVID-19.