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  • Article
    7 Januar 2016

    Spain’s lowest earners have been badly affected by the deterioration in their income since the crisis that began in 2008, with salaries being devalued because of rising inflation. A report by trade union CCOO says this has the effect of cutting purchasing power, increasing income inequality and fuelling the collapse of economic demand.

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    /This article builds on the discussion in the first article on the trends and
    drivers likely to shape the future of the sector and the challenges it faces
    since the end of the Cold War. In particular, it looks at developments in the
    industry, such as the increasing internationalisation of production, the
    growing importance of IT companies within the defence sector, and the
    privatisation of services that were once provided by the military. The
    article also explores three alternative scenarios for the defence industry
    illustrating the decisions that need to be made, as well as the implications
    of these./

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    /This third and final article in the Sector Futures series on the European
    defence industry sector looks at the major policy issues and challenges
    facing the sector. It tries to tease out some of the main factors likely to
    shape the industry, looking at challenges in the area of strategy and
    security, governance, and technology and industrial restructuring. As the
    article suggests some possible futures, it is more speculative than the
    preceding two articles./

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    /The defence industry relies on skilled labour and resources in Europe, and
    has faced a period of considerable change and uncertainty since the end of
    the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s. Until now, national governments
    of EU Member States have had considerable control over the industry while the
    recent EU Code of Conduct for defence procurement intends to introduce more
    openness to the market. The first of three articles in the Sector Futures
    series on this sector delineates the defence industry sector and examines its
    market size, structure and nature of employment. It also explores the trends
    and drivers likely to shape the sector’s future, such as changes in demand,
    in the nature of production and the dominance of the United States./

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    Sector Futures provides specialised reports based on the monitoring of
    existing foresight studies, scenario work, innovation studies and reliable
    data sources. July 2004 features the last article in the series on the future
    of the automotive sector. It explores some of the directions that EU policy
    could take to safeguard the future of the industry and guarantee a cleaner
    and safer environment for all citizens.

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    /Against a background of severe economic and social problems during
    Poland’s transition to the market economy, a group of company managers from
    British Petroleum Polska, Sheraton, ABB and Commercial Union formed the
    Autokreacja Association in 2002. The association aims to promote and support
    responsible business practices that benefit both businesses and society,
    while helping to achieve social, economic and environmentally sustainable
    development. As part of this aim, it offers intensive training programmes to
    disadvantaged, unemployed young people to improve their chances of finding

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    Sector Futures provides specialised reports based on the monitoring of
    existing foresight studies, scenario work, innovation studies and reliable
    data sources. The second feature in the Sector Futures series on the textiles
    and leather sector explores in greater depth the driving forces likely to
    shape future developments in the industry. It discusses whether the textiles
    and clothing industry is 'a dying industry - or not?' in Europe. The third
    and last article in the series then looks at policy responses currently being
    pursued at EU level, in order to address the challenges facing the sector
    over the coming decade.

  • Article
    23 Dezember 2015

    The impacts of the 2012 labour market reform have been mixed and not necessarily clear cut. Employers’ representatives have generally welcomed the changes, but suggested flexibility should be further encouraged. Trade unions claim the quality of employment has deteriorated and labour precariousness increased, accompanied by a growing imbalance in income distribution.

  • Work programme
    23 Dezember 2015

    The year 2016 marks the fourth and final year of implementation of Eurofound’s four-year work programme 2013–2016, From crisis to recovery: Better informed policies for a competitive and fair Europe. The multiannual strategy laid down in the four-year programme provides Eurofound with a clear framework for the development of its annual programmes.

  • Article
    22 Dezember 2015

    Unions have welcomed a ruling by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) that travel time for mobile workers should be treated as working time. Employer organisations have not commented, but the UK's umbrella national employer organisation, the CBI, has said it is vital the UK’s opt-out from the EU working time directive is retained.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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