A recent collective agreement signed at Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) provides
for the development of social dialogue and workers' participation, through
information and discussion on industrial policies and joint decision-making
on vocational training.
At the beginning of May 1997, the State Prosecutor's consultative committee
issued a report questioning the legality of the provision of a state
guarantee for a bank loan made to the General Workers' Union (União Geral
dos Trabalhadores, UGT). A final decision on whether to take legal action to
ascertain the legality of the action is now expected from the State
On 30 April 1997 the Ring of Free Labour (Ring Freiheitlicher Arbeitnehmer,
RFA), a group affiliated with the Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche
Partei Österreichs, FPÖ), held its federal congress. One of the points of
debate was whether to develop into a trade union outside the Austrian Trade
Union Federation (Österreichische Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB). Since 1945 there
have been no trade unions outside the ÖGB. The debate was triggered by the
RFA's failure to achieve caucus status in the ÖGB. The minimum requirement
of at least four affiliated works council members in each of at least three
trade unions has not been met.
Part-time workers have traditionally not been allowed into the same
occupational pension schemes as full-time workers, but because there are far
more women than men among part-timers the practice was challenged on the
grounds of sex discrimination through the European Court of Justice (ECJ). In
1994, the ECJ ruled in a set of linked cases that the practice did amount to
sex discrimination. The judgment was not welcomed by the then Conservative
Government, so the Trades Union Congress (TUC) advised qualifying individuals
that they should register their cases with industrial tribunals. After a
number of test cases in the UK tribunals, it was ruled that part-timers who
had been denied access to occupational pension schemes could not claim
backdated pension rights any further back that two years prior to the ECJ's
ruling - that is, 1992. After appeals were turned down, the cases are still
waiting to be heard by the House of Lords.
The importance of continuing vocational education is increasingly being
recognised by policy-makers across the European Union, not only because of
its positive impact on maintaining the competitiveness of enterprises, but
also because of its potential contribution to the free movement of labour and
the improvement of employment prospects. This is particularly important in
the context of the evolving "information society". The Commission has given
particular emphasis and resources to continuing training through its
vocational training programme, LEONARDO, and in declaring 1996 the European
Year of Lifelong Learning.
Two separate committees - a group of professors appointed by the Government
and a committee of economists from the Finnish social partners - published
reports in early May 1997 on the industrial relations implications of EU
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) for Finland The social partners themselves
have adopted a joint declaration on EMU membership.
Occupational pension schemes are becoming more and more important in Italy
even though their full implementation is still difficult, both because the
legal framework has not yet been consolidated, and because their form and
content must be defined by the social partners through collective bargaining.
The latter point still remains problematic, as no agreement has yet been
reached as to whether pension schemes should be developed at national or
local level. Nevertheless, evidence from recent collective bargaining at
national and local levels shows that occupational pension scheme issues are
growing in importance.
In elections held in April 1997, a joint list of socialist and communist
trade unionists narrowly won control of Portugal's South and Islands Banking
Union (Sindicato dos Bancários do Sul e Ilhas, SBSI), which will continue to
be affiliated to the General Workers' Union (União Geral de Trabalhadores,
"Negotiate a reduction of working time - or else public opinion will force
through legislation". That was the message in an article written jointly by
Prime MinisterGöran Persson and the chair of the Swedish Metal Workers'
Union, Göran Johnsson, and published in the evening paper /Aftonbladet/ on
28 April 1997. Considering that one of the authors is the Prime Minister of
Sweden, it could be seen as a veiled threat to the employers. In the 1997
bargaining round, several trade unions called for a cut in working hours, and
the employers consistently rejected them.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
As part of a process to collect information on essential services, the European Commission (DG EMPL) requested Eurofound to provide input on certain aspects of existing and planned measures in the Member States to improve access to essential services, in reference to Principle 20 of the European Pillar of Social Rights. The scope of the exercise included energy services, public transport and digital communications, and the focus was on people at risk of poverty or social exclusion (in practice, people on low incomes in most cases).
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.
The financial services sector is pertinent for studying the impact of digitalisation, as the main ‘raw material’ of the sector is digitally stored and processed. Process automation in the sector is likely to lead to significant job losses over the next 10 years, as the high street bank presence declines and the online bank presence increasingly accounts for a higher share of overall activity. Such trends have already been identified in bank restructurings captured in Eurofound’s European Restructuring Monitor.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the gas sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the gas sector in the EU Member States.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?