The ECJ's ruling on 11 March 1997 in the case of /Süzen v Zehnacher
Gebäudereinigung GmbH Krankenhausservice and another/ (Case C-13/95) made a
potential "U-turn" in the interpretation of the EU Directive on transfers of
undertakings, that has left a question mark over the way that the employment
rights of the employees of contractors are decided. The ruling stems from a
court case in Germany in which a school cleaner, Ayse Süzen, lost her job
when her employer failed to keep the cleaning contract at the school where
she worked. Ms Süzen challenged the decision of the new contractor not to
re-employ the cleaning workers dismissed by their original employer.
An agreement for Italy's first regional occupational pensions fund was signed
in March 1997 by the Veneto local organisations of Confindustria, the main
employers' organisation, and of the CISL trade union confederation. The
initiative has met with hostility from CGIL and uncertainty from UIL, the
other two main union confederations.
According to the Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer
Österreich, WKÖ) there were 162,339 salaried employees in industrial
establishments in 1995. This was nearly 35% of total employment in industry.
(There were another 8,605 in industrial enterprises in the construction
industry where they accounted for 23% of employment). The pay scales applying
to these employees have been changed from 1 May 1997, affecting 84% of the
total in industry. The changes come in the form of a collective agreement
concluded between the Federal Section Industry (Bundessektion Industrie) of
the WKÖ and the Industry and Crafts Section (Sektion Industrie und Gewerbe)
of the Union of Salaried Employees (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten,
GPA). The negotiations started in May 1995 and were concluded on 28 October
On 29 April 1997, the management and works council at Mohn GmbH, a subsidiary
of one of Germany's biggest media corporations, Bertelsmann, signed a works
agreement - known as the "Pact for partnership 1997" - for the 1,700 or so
employees at the Mohn printing works in Gütersloh.
The recent Commission Communication on /Modernising and improving social
protection in the European Union/ (COM (97)102 of 12 March 1997- EU9703113N
) is merely the latest step in a long process of debate revolving around
the question of how systems of social protection can best be adapted to
today's changing economic, social and demographic situation. It is a debate
which has in the past clearly been influenced by the limited nature of
Community legal competence in this area. This is restricted to the
coordination of national social security schemes in cases where citizens
exercise their rights to free movement within the Union. Member states have
long resisted any attempts at a harmonisation of social protection systems,
which have developed very differently as a result of every country's
socio-economic, political and cultural heritage.
A recent study published by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) on the Belgian labour market and social climate has
recommended drastic changes to the country's institutional and socio-economic
structure. The most notable recommendations include a plea for greater
flexibility, less government intervention in industrial relations, lower
unemployment benefits, abolition of the indexation of pay to consumer prices
and easier procedures for recruitment and especially dismissal. In summary,
it may be said that the OECD largely advises Belgium to adopt the "American
model". This study was to a certain extent reinforced by a report from
European Commissioner Yves-Thibault de Silguy who also pleads for higher wage
differentials, lower employment costs and greater flexibility. Both studies
also stress the importance of low labour costs and high returns on
In a previous EIRO review of the industrial relations consequences of the new
Labour Government (UK9704125F ) it was suggested that it was unlikely that
the Government would produce an all-embracing employment bill in its first
term of office, and this has proved correct. However, the social partners
were still relatively pleased with announcements made on measures to tackle
unemployment and low pay.
A recent collective agreement signed at Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) provides
for the development of social dialogue and workers' participation, through
information and discussion on industrial policies and joint decision-making
on vocational training.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the electricity sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the electricity sector in the EU Member States.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
This policy brief will provide an update on upward convergence in the economic, social and institutional dimensions of the European Union, as outlined in the European Pillar of Social Rights and its accompanying Social Scoreboard.
Lockdown measures and the economic shift following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widening of the gender divide between men and women, putting at risk some of the gender equality gains that had been made in previous years. This report analyses changes in the distribution of paid and unpaid work, along with care and domestic responsibilities, among men and women during the crisis. It also explores the impact of the pandemic on the well-being of women and men.
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The hospital sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospitals and their workers are on the frontline in the fight against the virus, and they face a number of significant challenges in terms of resources, work organisation and working conditions. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have varied across sectors, occupations and categories of worker (for instance, according to gender, age or employment status). Hours worked have declined the most in sectors such as accommodation services and food and beverage services, and in occupations heavily reliant on in-person interaction, such as sales work. At the same time, it’s in these sectors that labour shortages have become increasingly evident as labour markets have begun to normalise.
This report analyses the working lives of workers in Europe in 2021, when the continent was still in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines working conditions during that period and the association between job quality and work outcomes such as health and well-being, work–life balance, and financial security. The report also considers how the shifts in working life during the pandemic are likely to affect work in the future.