Government measures to support employment, the representativeness of the social partner organisations, and the social partners’ failure to agree on an increase in minimum insurance thresholds are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Bulgaria in the third quarter of 2016.
The restructuring exercise at Air Malta, which is nearing its end, and the changes to the Industrial Tribunal are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Malta in the third quarter of 2016.
The establishment of a Labour Employer Economic Forum, pay disputes involving the police and teachers, and the resolution of pay disputes by Dublin bus and tram drivers are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Ireland in the third quarter of 2016.
The definition of hazardous jobs, measures to promote youth employment, a series of collective redundancies and proposals to alter wage formation are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Belgium in the third quarter of 2016.
A new legal framework for call centres, the issue of work-related fatalities, contract renewals – especially in the large retail and textile sectors – and pension reforms are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Italy in the third quarter of 2016.
Proposals on how to tackle labour shortages, a strike by municipal employees for higher wages, and mounting tensions around reforms to education and vocational training are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Hungary in the third quarter of 2016.
The adoption of laws related to the new social model, the possible consequences of Brexit for the Lithuanian economy and collective bargaining in the education sector are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Lithuania in the third quarter of 2016.
Good news on unemployment, criticism by social partners of sanctions on Portugal for breaking EU rules on the public deficit, and talks on increasing the minimum wage are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Portugal in the third quarter of 2016.
Protests and strikes, the transposition of European directives on labour relations, a wage policy to encourage some workers and attempts to improve some public sector salaries are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Romania in the third quarter of 2016.
The drafting of the State budget (including discussions on the minimum wage), civil service reforms, an agreement on the State revenue system and debates on social insurance are the main topics of interest in this article. This country update reports on the latest developments in working life in Latvia in the third quarter of 2016.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
With the expansion of telework and different forms of hybrid work as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important for policymakers to consider both the opportunities and the negative consequences that may result. This report will explore potential scenarios for such work. In doing so, it will identify trends and drivers, and predict how they might interact to create particular outcomes and how they are likely to affect workers and businesses. Policy pointers will outline what could be done to facilitate desirable outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones.
The urban-rural divide in EU countries has grown in recent years, and the depopulation of certain rural areas in favour of cities is a challenge when it comes to promoting economic development and maintaining social cohesion and convergence. Using data from Eurofound and Eurostat, this report will investigate the trends and drivers of the urban-rural divide, in various dimensions: economic and employment opportunities, access to services, living conditions and quality of life.
Building on previous work by Eurofound, this report will investigate intergenerational dynamics over time. During the 2008 double-dip recession, worrying intergenerational divides appeared in many Member States, and while some of the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is universal, early data suggests disparities across demographic cohorts. Eurofound will examine how different age groups may have been affected in terms of their health, labour market participation, quality of life and financial needs, both in the short term and in the long term.
Adequate, affordable housing has become a matter of great concern, with an alarming number of Europeans with low or lower household incomes unable to access any, especially in capital cities. Housing was a key factor in people’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic: its quality and level of safety significantly affected how lockdowns and social distancing measures were experienced, with those who had no access to quality housing at higher risk of deteriorating living conditions and well-being.
The use of artificial intelligence, advanced robotics and the Internet of Things technologies in the workplace can bring about fundamental changes in work organisation and working conditions. This report analyses the ethical and human implications of the use of these technologies at work by drawing on qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders, input from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents and Delphi expert surveys, and case studies.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in European sectoral social dialogue taking place at cross-sectoral level. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations at cross-sectoral level in the EU Member States.