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research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articleson working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
Youth unemployment is a growing concern in the EU as the economic downturn
continues. In October 2011 the unemployment rate (25Kb PDF)  among those
aged 15 to 24 in the EU27 was 22%. Some countries are particularly badly
affected, such as Spain with 49% youth unemployment and Greece with 45%. A
further concern is that young people who successfully find work may be
employed on temporary or part-time contracts.
Steel maker Hellenic Halyvourgia  was created from the merger of
Halyvourgia Thessalias and Helliniki Halyvourgia on 1 December 2006. Since
then domestic demand for its steel has declined and the company has not been
able to create an export market for its products.
During the assignment of the first contract for construction work at the site
of the 2015 Universal Exposition, which will take place in Milan, a draft
agreement was signed covering health and safety requirements. It takes its
lead from the health and safety pact signed in 2008 covering building sites
in Milan (*IT0902029I* ).
In 2006, the then German government proposed gradually raising the statutory
retirement age from 65 to 67 years. At the time, the coalition was made up of
the conservative Christian Democratic Party (CDU ), its Bavarian sister
party, the Christian Social Union (CSU ), and its coalition partner, the
Social Democratic Party (SPD ).
The EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007 coincided with a sharp growth in demand
for workers in the Norwegian labour market. These workers mostly came from
Eastern Europe, but this influx led to social dumping ; - the problem of
poor pay and conditions, breaches of health and safety rules, and unfair
competition. The government launched two action plans in 2006 and 2008 to
combat this. Many of the measures were initiated by the trade unions,
Fellesforbundet  and The Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO ),
who demanded that collective agreements be made generally applicable – a
new measure that would have substantial effects on parts of the industrial
relations system. This idea was met with scepticism by employers.
The rate of undeclared work  in Italy is, on average, 12.2%, but there are
strong regional differences. According to a report (in Italian ) by the
Italian National Institute for Statistics (Istat ), the percentage of
irregular workers in the south, where Puglia is situated, is 19%, while the
figure in northern Italy is 10.2%.
The new agreement reached in January 2012 on short-time work is seen as the
first step towards negotiating a structural reform of the French labour
market to simplify the short-time work scheme, to make it more accessible to
companies in difficulty. The social partners have already arranged three
working meetings between now and 7 March to discuss this reform, which has
been called for by all negotiating parties.
Bulgarian state-owned Maritza East Mines  is the country’s largest
mining complex, and the main source of lignite coal for three thermal power
plants; state-owned Maritsa Iztok 2, Maritsa Iztok 3 (which US Contour Global
recently acquired from Italy's Enel), and AES Galabovo (owned by US company
AES). Together, the plants provide about one third of the country’s
This study aims to provide the necessary information for reviewing social
dialogue in the sea fisheries sector. The report identifies the national
organisations on both sides of industry, and analyses the sector’s European
organisations. Following a brief overview of the sector’s economic
background, the study describes the social partner organisations in all of
the EU Member States (with the exception of Austria, the Czech Republic,
Hungary, Luxembourg, and Slovakia) and then goes on to look at the relevant
European organisations, focusing in particular on membership levels and
capacity to negotiate. The impetus for these EIRO series of studies on
representativeness arises from the European Commission’s goal to recognise
the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). In the sea fisheries
sector, a joint committee was established in 1974 and the sea fisheries
sectoral social dialogue committee was set up in 1999.
The abolition of the default retirement age of 65 (UK1008019I ) and the
rise in the state pension age to 66 means that people in the UK are expected
to have longer working lives. These changes, coupled with the current
recession, mean that Jobcentre Plus (a government-funded scheme that offers
individual jobseekers one-to-one support and training tailored to their
needs) anticipates increasing uptake of its services by older customers.