Collectively agreed rules which regulate the deployment of labour and organization of work within the workplace. They oblige the employer either to employ a certain number of employees on certain machines (quantitative staffing rules) or to reserve certain jobs to employees with particular forms of training (qualitative staffing rules). Such rules are of almost no significance in Austria. The sole exception is the printing and publishing industry, where at the start of the 1980s an eight-year guarantee against job losses was agreed for employees affected by the introduction of integrated keyboarding systems. Following the expiry of this collective agreement, the only current staffing rule concerns the protection of journalists in the face of the introduction of integrated keyboarding systems in the production of daily and weekly newspapers. The reason for this lack of significance lies in the fact that the ÖGB and its member unions regard technological progress and its concomitant productivity gains as the basis for increased economic prosperity. Staffing rules which hinder technological progress and the growth of productivity are considered an inappropriate form of protection against rationalization. This attitude is favoured by the structure of the ÖGB and its member unions: since they are organized vertically on a sector/industry basis and not horizontally on the basis of particular occupations, unlike occupational unions (Berufsgewerkschaften) their survival is not threatened by rationalization processes.