Publications

Search results: 917 items found
  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    1999 saw GDP growth decrease to 1.2%, from 2.2% in 1998 and 3.5% in 1997.
    However, inflation slowed, to 1.3% compared with 3.2% in 1998 and 2.8% in
    1997. The unemployment rate decreased slightly from 6.4% (1,804,000 people)
    in 1998 to 6.3% (1,778,000) in 1999, continuing the decline which has been
    witnessed since 1993, when the rate stood at 10.7% (2,996,000). Public debt
    as a percentage of GDP fell from 41.4% in 1998 to 39% in 1999, continuing a
    decline from the recent high-point of 44.2% recorded in 1996.

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    The Employment Relations Act 1999 [1] implements the package of individual,
    collective and "family-friendly" employment rights set out in the Labour
    government's Fairness at work [2] white paper issued in May 1998 (UK9806129F
    [3]). Introduced in parliament in February 1999 (UK9902180F [4]), the
    legislation completed its passage through parliament in the summer, receiving
    the Royal Assent on 27 July. Its various provisions are now in the process of
    being brought into force in stages by a series of commencement orders (though
    those concerning union recognition - arguably the most significant aspect of
    the new legislation - are not scheduled to take effect until after Easter
    2000). In addition, the Act authorises the trade and industry secretary to
    bring forward regulations and other supplementary measures on a range of
    issues.

    [1] http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1999/19990026.htm
    [2] http://www.dti.gov.uk/IR/fairness/index.htm
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/labour-market-undefined-working-conditions/government-unveils-proposals-for-a-fairer-workplace
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions/employment-relations-bill-published

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    The Maternity and Parental Leave Regulations 1999 were laid before parliament
    on 4 November and took effect on 15 December 1999. The regulations introduce
    a right to parental leave, based on Council Directive 96/34/EC [1]
    (TN9801201S [2]), and improve existing maternity leave arrangements. The
    provisions of the Employment Relations Act 1999 [3] on time off in the event
    of emergencies involving family and other dependants, which also reflect the
    Directive, came into force on the same date (UK9905103F [4]).

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=31996L0034&model=guichett
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/the-eu-parental-leave-agreement-and-directive-implications-for-national-law-and-practice
    [3] http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1999/19990026.htm
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions/labours-family-friendly-employment-agenda

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    On 22 November 1999, staff at British Telecommunications (BT) call centres
    staged a one-day strike in protest at their "intolerable" working conditions.
    According to the Communication Workers' Union (CWU) which organised the
    strike, around 95% of its 4,000 members in 37 call centres took industrial
    action in what was the first national strike at BT for 13 years. The move
    followed a ballot in which 81% of those voting supported industrial action to
    highlight a range of staff concerns involving "stress, a bullying management
    style, unachievable targets and the widespread use of agency workers", and
    the failure of "11th-hour" talks between management and union officials.
    Following the strike, the union said that BT management had agreed to meet
    CWU officials to discuss the issues, but, pending a successful outcome to the
    talks, further days of action were planned for 10 December and early in the
    new year.

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    On 16 November 1999, Roger Lyons, general secretary of the Manufacturing
    Science Finance (MSF) trade union announced plans for a merger with the
    Amalgamated Engineering and Electrical Union (AEEU). With a combined
    membership of over 1 million (the AEEU reported some 720,000 members in 1998,
    the MSF some 430,000), the merged union would have a strong presence in
    manufacturing but would also represent workers in a range of other sectors
    including construction, energy supply, financial services and public
    services. Proposals for the new union follow a number of major union mergers
    over recent years (UK9705131N [1]), most recently between three unions in the
    financial services sector to create UNIFI (UK9903193N [2]). A merger between
    the AEEU and MSF would create the UK's second-largest union behind the public
    services union UNISON, which was itself formed when three unions merged in
    1993.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/are-trade-union-mergers-the-way-forward
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/finance-workers-vote-for-merged-super-union

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    Following the launch of the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
    and the euro single currency on 1 January 1999, the economic performance of
    EU Member States is being kept within the parameters set by the Stability
    Pact. Thus, the economies of the 11 "euro-zone" countries are falling into
    step with each other and the four countries outside the euro-zone (Denmark,
    Greece, Sweden and the UK) are following a policy of pegging their economic
    performance to the euro-zone countries.

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    On 1 May 1999 an Act banning discrimination on the grounds of the sexual
    orientation of a worker (/SFS 1999:133/) came into force in Sweden
    (SE9903148F [1]). The Act applies to the whole labour market, and to the
    recruitment process as well as the employment relationship. Sexual
    orientation is defined as "homosexual, bisexual or heterosexual orientation".
    Different kinds of sexual behaviour, such as exhibitionism or paedophilia,
    are not included.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/three-new-anti-discrimination-acts-approved-by-parliament

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    GDP growth in 1998 was 2.6%. Preliminary figures for 1999 show a rising
    trend, with growth of 3.7% in the second quarter of the year compared with
    the same period in 1998 (according to data from Statistics Sweden). GDP at
    market prices, according to Eurostat, was SEK 1,890,202 million in 1998.
    Public debt was 74.2% of GDP in 1998, and the general government deficit was
    1.9% of GDP. The unemployment rate (as defined by Eurostat harmonised
    indices) was 6.6% of the labour force, as at October 1999. The inflation rate
    (expressed in Eurostat harmonised indices of consumer prices), was 0.8% in
    November 1999.

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    On 20 January 1999, the Swedish and Norwegian governments announced an
    intended merger between their respective state-owned telecommunications
    firms, Telia and Telenor. After nine months of lively discussions between the
    parties, and following confirmation by the European Commission, the merger
    agreement was concluded on 19 October 1999. However, on 16 December, after
    less than two months of operation, it was announced that the merger had ended

  • Article
    27 Δεκέμβριος 1999

    Public debate on employment protection - ie protection against dismissal and
    redundancy - has been going on for a long time, and in 1974 a major Act on
    Employment Protection (lagen om anställningsskydd, LAS) was passed. The
    debate started anew at the beginning of the 1990s. The issues of the
    seniority rules which determine which workers are to be made redundant became
    very important at at time when unemployment increased considerably.